Plasterboard fire-resistant sheet is a safe and reliable building material that meets high fire safety requirements. This versatile material for interior decoration is often used by construction professionals due to its fire resistance, mechanical strength, ease of use, and reliability. On the modern market, you can purchase various modifications of drywall. They differ in technical characteristics, scope, markings and tone.
Features: composition and properties
Fire-resistant drywall consists of two layers - gypsum and cardboard. Both layers are impregnated with special substances that allow them to withstand from 25 to 60 minutes of direct fire. Even when exposed to flame, the material does not spread smoke and does not burn. You can distinguish between types of drywall by color marking. Moisture-resistant material is green, simple is gray, fire-resistant has a red or pink tint.
The main feature of GKLO is that the most dense adhesion is provided between the layers of cardboard and gypsum.
Together with impregnation with special non-flammable compounds, this prevents oxygen from penetrating into the sheet during a fire and prevents material destruction. The difference between the varieties lies in the composition and production technology of the gypsum layer. In the manufacture of gypsum mass, it is reinforced with fiberglass-based reinforcing threads. The length of the threads ranges from 4 to 30 mm. They retain their structure, do not collapse under the influence of high temperatures. Reinforcing threads are a frame that keeps drywall from collapsing during a fire.
For the production of gypsum, special fireclay clay is used. When exposed to high temperatures, it is sintered, so that the sheet of the product does not crumble. The cardboard and the gypsum layer are bonded to each other using special adhesives, which act as a reinforcing frame, strengthening the product itself. GKLO contains crystalline hydrates, which release crystallization liquid when heated. This allows you to prevent fire, when heated, the material extinguishes itself, lowering the temperature.
For example, ordinary drywall that does not contain crystalline hydrates is destroyed after 20 minutes of exposure to open fire, heat-resistant gypsum board is able to withstand fire. The use of this refractory building material increases the level of fire safety. The time limit of fire resistance and other characteristics are indicated in the quality certificate, which various trade marks accompany their products. Each sheet of GKLO has a conventional designation consisting of a plate type code, standard marking, an indication of the variety of longitudinal edges of the sheet and product dimensions in mm. Often, for the convenience of visualization, indicators are listed in a table.
Advantages and disadvantages
Heat-resistant plasterboard sheets have many advantages.
- The material contains no toxic substances, which guarantees environmental friendliness and safety of the material for human health.
- This material has good thermal insulation. This is especially noticeable in the cold season.
- It is convenient to bend and cut the sheets, which ensures ease of installation, saves time and effort in the production of construction work.
- Any finishing and decorative coatings (paint, wallpaper, ceramic tiles) can be applied to the surface of the GKLO.
- Good soundproofing.This material is excellent at absorbing noise.
- Affordable price. Heat-resistant material is more expensive than ordinary gypsum board, but it is cheaper than plastering.
- The light weight of the sheets reduces the load on the structures.
Plasterboard can be conveniently combined with other materials, creating arches, a variety of functional and decorative designs.
Plasterboards are able to absorb excess moisture in the room and return it in dry weather ("breathe")
It is worth noting the disadvantages of GKLO
- Heat-resistant drywall is not recommended for use in rooms with high humidity. For such premises, GKLVO should be used, which resists not only fire, but also moisture, thanks to a special impregnation.
- Plasterboard sheets do not have high mechanical strength. Various fasteners (nails, screws, screws) do not hold well on them.
- The material is sensitive to various damages or dents. If you need to hang furniture on a wall made of GKLO, you should first strengthen it and use dowels designed specifically for GKL.
Types and characteristics
On the modern Russian market there are 2 types of heat-resistant drywall: GKLVO and GKLO. GKLVO - moisture-resistant gypsum plasterboard sheets. It is a combined building material that combines the moisture-resistant properties of gypsum plasterboard and heat-resistant gypsum plasterboard. It is used in industrial or domestic premises with a high level of humidity. The color of the front side of the cardboard is green, it is marked with a strictly red color. GKLO - gypsum plasterboard refractory sheets. This heat resistant type of drywall has a high level of fire resistance. It is advisable to use it for interior cladding of rooms with normal or low humidity.
The most important parameters that you should pay attention to when choosing a fireproof drywall are the fire resistance limit and the weight of the sheet. These characteristics are defined by GOST and must be indicated in the product quality certificate. GKLO is used for wall and ceiling cladding. Weight plays a big role. For walls, sheets are used that have a large thickness (standard 12.5 mm).
For cladding ceilings, lighter versions of the product are used in order to reduce the load on the structures.
The fire resistance limit shows at what duration of exposure to open fire on the material, its destruction will begin. The value of fire resistance is indicated by numbers. The higher it is, the more refractory and quality the cladding is. The number indicates the time span of the flame resistance of the building materials. For example, GKLO 25 will begin to collapse under the influence of fire in 25 minutes.
The most durable version of GKLO 55 resists fire for almost an hour. Another important fire safety parameter is the material's flammability category. According to GOST No.30244, fire-resistant drywall belongs to the G-1 group.
This means the following:
- t flue gases GKLO less than 135 oc;
- the degree of damage to the product along its length in case of fire is not more than 65%;
- the level of destruction of the product in case of fire is less than 20% of the mass;
- the sheet does not burn on its own.
- standard dimensions of GKLO sheet 150-300cm x 120cm, thickness 1.25 and 1.5cm;
- gray shade with red markings.
Designation of types of edges of the sheet GKLO:
- PC - straight line;
- PLC - semicircular;
- PLUK - sophisticated semicircular;
- UK - refined from the front.
In the production of GKLO, they are coated with fire retardants, which allow them to withstand high temperatures and not ignite. The sheets only get charred, but do not burn. For the manufacture of sheets, reinforced gypsum is used, which has undergone a special heat treatment. This significantly increases the resistance of the material when exposed to high temperatures.
In terms of physical and hygienic properties, it is excellent for use in residential premises. It can be used for finishing the premises of apartment buildings, private buildings, industrial facilities. Its properties make it possible to make different shapes out of it, thereby decorating the surfaces of walls and ceilings. In addition to drywall arches, you can cut various shapes. For example, in addition to geometric shapes, you can cut out individual flowers, butterflies, abstract motifs from it, decorating the ceiling space with them.
It can be given a wavy, curved shape. This material can be used to mount various lighting, including lamps on suspensions and built-in models. They will not harm, they will not destroy it. Convenience is the fact that, if necessary, the gypsum board can be tinted.
The following firms have proven themselves well in the domestic market:
Their products are reliable, drywall is produced in compliance with the requirements of GOST, it is tested by testing.
The scope of use of non-combustible drywall is quite wide. The material is used for various works. It is used for interior decoration in buildings for which high fire requirements for finishing materials are determined. These include boiler rooms, boilers, industrial premises, as well as public buildings with high traffic.
In addition, such drywall is applicable in:
- arrangement of walls and supporting elements in schools, kindergartens and other educational institutions;
- cladding of wooden buildings, country houses, garages to prevent the likelihood of fire;
- the formation of boxes during the construction of ventilation systems and the laying of electrical cables in household and industrial premises;
- installation of interior partitions and false ceilings;
- construction of chimneys, chimneys, fireplace portals;
- cladding of walls and ceilings of bathrooms, utility rooms in saunas, baths.
In addition, this moisture-resistant material is used when carrying out repair work in children's rooms. The area of use of fire-resistant gypsum board is quite extensive. This non-flammable material is practical to install and helps protect rooms from fire. It is important to thoroughly choose high-quality material and follow the simple rules for installing GKLO.
For installation of a plasterboard stretch ceiling, see the following video.