During a major overhaul, all elements are usually replaced, including the wiring. The operation of electrical appliances depends on it, and today there are many of them in every home. To properly lay the electrical wiring, you need to take into account certain nuances, for example, how to draw conclusions for connecting outlets in drywall.
Consider the features and order of such work.
In modern production, copper is mainly used for the manufacture of electrical wires. The finished wire is placed in an insulating sheath.
In order not to damage it while laying the wire on a metal frame or self-tapping screws for a profile, the wire must be placed in a special protective sheath.
In this case, the tube will not interfere with the installation and will prevent damage to the cable, which will make it possible to avoid a short circuit. Also, such a sheath can protect the wire from small rodents, which is especially important in some household premises.
Also for these purposes sometimes PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipes or special hollow cables are usedmade of plastic. They are not so easy to assemble and difficult to lay in hard-to-reach places.
Laying and wiring
The way the electrical wiring is laid depends on how the plasterboard finish is installed. The method without installing the frame is rarely used. In this case, it is necessary to groove the surface of the main wall, and place the wire in it. Holes must also be prepared for the places where the switching and switching means will be installed. After that, the cable is attached to the wall with special clamps.
With the frame method of plasterboard cladding, the wiring under it can be carried out along the wall (as in the option described above) or directly at the base of the finish, using the frame racks in the form of a cable support. To do this, you can purchase special rails, which have ready-made points for wiring … Fastening in this case is often done with a plastic cable tie.
You can also drill holes in the rack profiles for horizontal lines. Most often, the wiring is laid using a frame base.
Wiring under the plasterboard from a metal profile
The first thing to do before starting work is to think over the layout of all inputs and outputs for the attachment points of sockets and switches. It is also imperative to plan where and how the wiring lines will be laid. Two methods are used: routing on the ceiling and along the walls. The choice of method depends on whether the ceiling is overlapped or not.
If you have a plasterboard stretch or suspended ceiling, then the line must be laid inside the ceiling. In its absence, the wiring is done along the walls, while the cable is laid horizontally, the distance from the ceiling is 150 mm.
First, a frame made of a metal profile is mounted according to the standard method. In the necessary places, rails with special holes for the cable are installed (if such were purchased).
To make it much easier to work, the layout of the electric cable lines, as well as switches, sockets and distribution boards, is recommended to be applied to the surface of the ceiling or walls. This way you will not miss anything.
The next step is to fix the distribution boards in each room. To attach them to the wall, you can use the most common dowels or drywall screws.
At the next stage, power supply lines are laid. To begin with, clamps or clips are attached along the entire length with self-tapping screws, which will fix the cable, previously enclosed in a corrugation. Lashing ties can also be used as fastening material.
Holes must be drilled in the frame racks. A horizontal cable will be pulled through them.
It is imperative to draw conclusions for connecting sockets and switches. As a rule, sockets are located approximately 300 mm from the floor, and switches - 800 mm.… It is recommended to make floor marks near where they will be placed so that they can be easily found under the drywall later.
Upon completion of the wiring, the frame is sheathed. Then you can start drilling the holes for the glasses, into which the sockets are installed.
This method is used if the drywall is mounted on gypsum glue for installation without using a frame. In this case, the space under the upholstery will be small, so the wiring and outlet lines must be deepened into the wall. To do this, holes for wiring are grooved in the wall.
Chamfering is the cutting of longitudinal grooves (grooves) on the surface. To do this, you can use a wide variety of hand tools: a chisel, hammer or chisel.… You can also do this using a grinder, wall chaser or hammer drill.
For a more convenient slitting, it is necessary, as in the frame version, first, completely transfer the entire wiring diagram to the ceiling and walls, after which you can begin to groove surfaces … When working with concrete, aerated concrete or brick, it is better to first make longitudinal cuts (channels along which you need to chase).
Along the markings made, lines are slit for wiring. At the same time, in the places of installation of sockets, switches and distributors, recesses of the corresponding diameter are made. If the house is wooden, then it is better to make such indentations with a chisel.… After slitting the main lines, junction boxes are installed, and a pre-selected cable is laid along the lines in the corrugated pipe, securing it with plastic clips.
After the end of the laying of the wires, the fastening of the drywall begins. Wherein it is necessary to take into account the location of the laid cables so as not to damage the wire with self-tapping screws … After finishing the installation of drywall in the places where the switches and sockets are installed, you need to drill holes of a suitable diameter and install the socket boxes, leaving the wiring leads outside for further connections.
All electrical connection work must be done prior to finishing. This is necessary so that you can change the wiring, if necessary, without destroying the final decoration of the walls of the room.
Features of the wiring in the bathroom
The installation of wiring in rooms with high humidity, to which the bathroom belongs, has its own characteristics. This is due to the fact that wet surfaces are an excellent conductor, electric current can pass through them.
This is what determines the special wiring requirements:
- The electrical switch and junction box must be installed outside the room (bathroom).
- Installation of sockets is carried out no closer than 65 cm from water pipes.
- Indoor waterproof electrical appliances must be carefully grounded.
- The power line for the appliances in the room is connected to a separate automatic fuse.
- All grounding bars are connected together to equalize the electrical potential.
False ceiling wiring
When planning the installation of wiring in a false ceiling with your own hands, it must be borne in mind that this method is somewhat different from installation inside the walls. In particular, the wiring to single luminaires is mounted along the upper edge of the room walls. Holes are drilled in the sheets of gypsum board through which the cable is laid. Several meters of cable can be pulled through them.
It is better to install the electrical wiring before installing the drywall. However, if the sheets are already fixed, in some cases it is necessary to dismantle them.
In general, the installation of hidden electrical wiring in drywall requires special attention and sequential execution of all stages. With proper consideration of the network load (especially 380 volts), the choice of high-quality components and careful installation, the assembled circuit will last a long time and efficiently.
For a visual process of laying the cable in drywall, see below.