It is always pleasant and convenient to have your own bath in a suburban area. When planning its construction, it is necessary to decide on the materials that will be used.
This article will consider a timber bath: features of its construction, types of projects and recommendations for construction.
Advantages and disadvantages
A freestanding bathhouse in a suburban area can be built from several materials: bricks, foam blocks, planed logs, solid or glued beams. A block or brick building will be more difficult and more expensive to build, it will not have all those delights, health benefits and a cozy look, like wooden baths. In addition, smudges and condensation will accumulate on the stone surface, and the wood will absorb moisture into itself.
In addition, baths from various types of timber have other advantages:
- like any other wood material, the timber is natural, environmentally friendly, does not emit harmful substances when heated, and often retains a pleasant and healthy smell of wood;
- baths are obtained with high thermal insulation;
- the most suitable microclimate for such structures is maintained inside;
- the building looks great both outside and inside, therefore it does not require decorative finishing;
- with a competent design and construction, such baths can last a long time.
Separately, it is worth highlighting the advantages associated with the construction of baths from a bar:
- parts fit easier than a log, especially if the timber is profiled;
- the lightness of the material does not require the installation of a massive strip foundation;
- the construction process is rooted due to the low shrinkage of the beams.
At cost, this is one of the most profitable options for building your own bath.
Reviews of the owners of such baths indicate some of their disadvantages:
- like any other wood material, solid or glued timber is a combustible material: given that there is a furnace with an open fire inside, the building will be fire hazardous;
- due to constant temperature changes in the tree, cracks form over time;
- a humid environment is constantly maintained in the bath, and this is the reason for the formation of mold, fungi and decay.
All these disadvantages can be effectively solved: for fire safety, treat the wood with a fire retardant, to prevent cracks, carry out regular maintenance of the timber, and cover it with an antiseptic against the formation of mold and fungi and lay a reliable drainage system that will remove excess water.
In addition, baths made of rounded timber or decorated with natural logs look like real country buildings.
The result is: a well-designed and built timber bath has practically no drawbacks, but it has a lot of advantages, especially since it is quite an affordable option for a family with an average income.
If a decision is made to build such a steam room, then first of all it is necessary to decide on the choice of materials.
Types of materials
A bath from an untreated log, with all its advantages, has one significant drawback: round timber deforms under the influence of moisture and temperature, therefore the whole structure will not be stable.At a timber wall, especially if a profiled version is chosen, such a defect is not observed.
There are several types of timber for the construction of baths:
One-piece non-profiledth timber is the cheapest material. This is a regular treated wood, rectangular or square in profile. After a while, in a humid environment, a fungus appears on such material, and shrinkage occurs
Therefore, it is not recommended to build a bath from such a bar.
Planed timber is a kind of solid non-profiled, only its surface is well processed: after grinding, it dries for about a year. Before you can use a dry planed timber bath, it must be dug with breathable paints. At a price, it is inferior to profiled and glued types, but it is difficult to avoid a flat surface without cracks with further shrinkage
- Constructions from profiled timber stiffer and more stable thanks to grooves and notches that are cut to the full length. It is in these elements that the bars are held together, providing maximum strength and no gaps. There can be several grooves and grooves, their shapes are also different.
- Baths from laminated veneer lumber have the greatest strength and thermal insulation. Such material is obtained by gluing several lamellas, each of which is pre-sanded, dried and treated with an antiseptic and fire retardant. It is possible to build walls from double or triple beams, sometimes glued lamellas and more.
Some are scared that the adhesive composition in this type of material contains harmful impurities and does not make the wood environmentally friendly. But in high-quality beams, harmless and safe glue is usually used.
- Frame system made of profiled and calibrated timber the most durable, and the easiest to erect. Thanks to the calibration, you can easily adjust the dimensions and create any project. The thickness of the calibrated timber for baths can be from 45 to 275 mm. It is possible to construct various building units from it. The cross section of such a material is rectangular or square, its standard sizes are more than ten.
- Baths look great from a rounded bar, which is specially processed on machines that give it a round profile, reminiscent of natural logs. Moreover, it can have grooves that provide a reliable bond between the elements.
A wall made of rounded timber can be coated with any kind of clear varnish for outdoor use, and it will really resemble a log cabin.
Combined timber is a kind of glued, only inside between two lamellas a heat-insulating material is placed in it, therefore this type is also called a thermal beam. It is very good for frost, especially in the regions of the far north, while it practically does not contain harmful impurities
Expanded polystyrene is most often used as a heat insulator of a combined bar. The disadvantage is the price - it costs 2 - 2.5 times more than the usual glued version.
Now it is worth considering the types of wood from which such baths can be built.
First, let's describe the properties of deciduous trees:
- Aspen - This is a traditional tree from which Russian baths were built for many centuries in a row. It is undemanding to climatic conditions, it is used both in the far north and in the southern regions, it is relatively easy to process, practically not prone to cracking. Its wood has a light white shade, the surface of an aspen bar is easily painted, amenable to processing with varnishes, mastic, stains. Of the minuses of aspen, it is possible to note a rapid darkening and a special specific smell.
- Linden has a light shade, pleasant smell with useful properties and healing effect, therefore it is also preferable in the construction of baths. The bars from it practically do not shrink, they perfectly retain heat inside.
Loose wood is susceptible to decay.To prevent it, the lower rims of the bath must be periodically replaced, and the room must be regularly ventilated.
- Oak possesses excellent durability, exudes a kind of pleasant and healing aroma. Moreover, this wood is very dense and durable. There are different types of oak, for example, white or Caucasian, with a wide variety of shades, from light to dark brown. The only drawback of wood is its high cost, therefore, at present, oak baths are practically not built.
- Larch almost as strong as oak, its wood is reddish, which does not change even after many years, has a pleasant healing scent. Baths made of this tree are durable and not affected by moisture. The disadvantages are the complexity of processing, little thermal insulation and high cost.
- Alder timber has a reddish tint and a special aroma, which will become more and more intense over time, practically does not emit resin, perfectly retains heat and is not afraid of moisture. A remarkable property of this wood is that it does not overheat, that is, it is impossible to get burns leaning against the wall in an alder bath. The disadvantages are the high cost and poor plasticity, that is, it is difficult to get even alder bars.
- Birch tree not as strong and durable as the types of wood described above, but it is easier to process. The light-colored material is durable, homogeneous and lightweight. Washing in a birch bath promotes a surge of energy and prevents colds.
The surface of the wood must be treated with an antiseptic, as it is prone to decay and does not tolerate contact with moisture.
Coniferous woods, unlike deciduous ones, are not so protected from moisture, and when heated, they release resin… But on the other hand, most varieties are cheap, well processed and have a positive effect on the body.
- Pine Is the most affordable material that is very easy to saw, grind and attach. Wood is not afraid of moisture and high temperatures, has a pleasant specific smell. To protect against decay, pine beams must be treated with an antiseptic.
- Spruce - This is the second most popular coniferous tree, which is used in construction. Spruce timber baths have good thermal insulation and moisture resistance. This wood also has a relatively low cost and is easy to process. From it, you can get smooth beams that remain so for a long time.
- Cedar has a beautiful and noble texture, is well processed, is not afraid of moisture and temperature extremes. In addition, it is not afraid of mold, rot, fungi and insects. It contains essential oils that smell good and have a healing effect.
You can consider several interesting projects of baths from a bar, which have an original layout and are easily erected on a personal plot with your own hands:
Mobile baths from a bar in shape, size and design they resemble construction wagons or cabins, which can be easily transported using a medium truck and a truck crane. They can have several windows and a regular wooden door. It is quite simple to create transportable baths from profiled timber with insulation yourself. It is optimal to use an electric oven as a furnace. Dimensions can be very different: from miniature (100x100 cm) to standard for building change houses (2x5 m)
Bath 4x3 m can have 2 compartments: a spacious dressing room, where you can comfortably undress and place clothes and other accessories, a steam room with floors and a stove. Such a building is easy to assemble on your own in a few days. For the foundation, you can use a simpler tape view: it will cope with the load without problems
Such stationary baths with a dressing room are well suited for a small family of 3 - 6 people on a personal plot.
Project baths 6x6 with a veranda is more difficult to install, but it is a truly multifunctional unit in which you can not only wash and bathe, but also relax in comfort. Inside a one-storey building, it is possible to divide from 3 to 5 rooms with different purposes. For such a design, it is necessary to use a reliable strip foundation
- Small wooden bath with dimensions 3 by 5 m can have three rooms: a rest and dressing room, a spacious steam room and a sink. Such a project can be realized independently, using a minimum of tools and materials, as well as your personal skill. Under the pitched roof, it is possible to organize storage space for brooms and other household utensils.
- Two-storey sauna with an attic Is a really chic project that you can build on your suburban area. Like any one-story views, it will contain all the necessary functional units, namely a dressing room, a steam room, a sink, and also have recreation rooms, a comfortable balcony, a storage room or even a hall. Such a building, due to its massiveness, requires the construction of a solid strip foundation.
- Bath with a swimming pool to design and build is not as difficult as it seems initially. It is enough to build a spacious room from a bar, dig a recess for the bowl, provide it with waterproofing and lay it with tiles. But the interior will be simply gorgeous and will make a huge impression on the guests.
- Chic project on strip foundations with terrace it is possible to build it yourself, using available finishing and heat-insulating materials. There may be several rooms inside: a hall, a steam room, a sink, a small pantry, and others. The annex in the form of a pretty terrace can be equipped with a wooden fence.
Standard calibrated timber is usually sold in cubic meters. To calculate the required number of cubes for the future bath, it is necessary to draw up dimensional drawings. Based on them, the calculation of the necessary materials is drawn up.
When planning purchases, it is also necessary to take into account the volumes of the solution for pouring the foundation, the amount of insulation and decorative materials, and additional elements.
How to build?
It is necessary to start building a bathhouse from a bar with your own hands by choosing its location, building materials and creating a project with drawings. The types of wood have already been discussed in detail. As for the place for future construction, it should be relatively even, without an abundance of groundwater, convenient for supplying water and creating a drainage system. In addition it is worth considering the direction of the smoke from the bath pipe: it must be mounted in such a way that the smoke coming out of it does not interfere with either your own or your neighbor's dwelling.
A drawing or sketch should be correctly done in two projections, indicating the size and location of the steam room, dressing room and other rooms, door and window openings. This method will help to correctly calculate the amount of materials. Next, you need to prepare and clear a place for the bath itself, storage and processing of materials. After that, proceed to the installation of the base.
The foundation for the bath can be columnar or tape - the choice depends on the weight of the future structure. Often the first option is chosen for wooden beams, since it is faster and more economical, but the second method is the most reliable. For a columnar foundation, pits are dug out for supports 15–20 cm widerthan they themselves, they pour gravel or gravel at the bottom and make a pillow of concrete. The pillars themselves are most often made of brickwork or blocks. First, mark the perimeter and install the supports in the corners, then mount the rest so that the distance between them is no more than 2 m.
The strip foundation is poured under the formwork, in which the frame is pre-installed from the reinforcement. For pouring, it is best to use concrete based on Portland cement with the addition of stones and gravel.
The depth of the strip foundation depends on the indicators of soil freezing: for areas with a temperate climate, it can vary from 50 to 70 cm.The thickness of the concrete base should exceed the width of the timber by at least 10 cm.The foundation should protrude 15 cm above the ground level.
The pit for the strip foundation is pulled out manually using shovels. First, you need to mark the perimeter and install beacons on its sides using pegs and fishing line. After the pit is dug, the formwork is knocked out of the boards inside in accordance with the dimensions.
Instead of boards, you can take a special formwork plywood with a smooth chipboard surface: it is easier to remove after pouring. All work must be carried out in warm and dry weather.
To prepare the solution, it is worth choosing high-quality varieties of Portland cement, for example, M400. Mixing should be done immediately before pouring using a mixer or portable concrete mixer. When the foundation is completely poured, then you need to wait for it to dry, then remove the formwork, and start laying the crowns from the beams only after the base has shrunk. From above, the foundation is covered with layers of insulation made of rolled roofing material.
Walls and floors are installed after preparation and sawing of materials. Bars treated with antiseptics and fire retardants are sawn to size, and then crowns are laid from them. Do not forget about waterproofing - the first crown must be laid on 2 layers of roofing material… It should be the thickest, because all the weight of the walls and roof falls on it. The space between the beams is additionally insulated with polyurethane foam or sealant.
Bath crowns are fastened together with dowels or metal pins. To do this, the already laid beams are drilled, while the fastening element must completely pass the upper beam and half sink in the lower one. The distance between the attachment points should be no more than 1.5 m… In this way, all crowns are mounted with the exception of the last two: they must be removed to secure the rafter system.
It is optimal to choose a wooden floor for a bath: it is easier to install, retains heat well, and it will be more convenient to wash. First, a crate is created from beams pre-treated with an antiseptic. Then insulation and waterproofing are placed inside. Planed and polished boards are laid last. The floor in the bathhouse is the part most suffering from moisture, so it should be borne in mind that the boards will swell and deform over time.
For a wooden floor, you should choose polished boards 1–2 cm thick, well dried, treated with a protective agent against moisture.
They are attached to the crate with nails or screws. After installing the flooring in the corners of the room, you can make wooden or plastic skirting boards.
Can be used for bathroom floors and cement-based screed. Before pouring, the base must be insulated, then mount the crate or guides, then mix and pour the solution.
Regardless of the choice of material for the floor, it is necessary to equip a drain in it and make some slope so that the water leaves.
Window and door openings in the walls can be made even before assembling the crowns (immediately on the ground) or after using a chainsaw. They are equipped with a casing made of boards that match in thickness with the width of the timber. A sedimentary gap of about 2-3 cm is left at the top, which is then filled with insulation or polyurethane foam.
After the openings are made, do not rush to install window packages and door frames - it is worth waiting for some time required for shrinkage
The roof for the bathhouse made of beams is most often chosen gable and symmetrical: it is the easiest to install and is able to reliably protect against snow cover and storm water. It will not be difficult to make the rafter system for the roof yourself due to the small dimensions of such a building. Roof beams are also made on the ground, treated with a fire retardant and antiseptic, and then dried.
The assembly of the rafter system begins with the installation of the Mauerlat - the base around the perimeter, on which all other elements will rest. A central beam with vertical uprights is fixed to the Mauerlat, then transverse beams with vertical ties are attached. At the end, it is necessary to fold the inclined rafters, which are connected in the center of the frame with a ridge beam. All elements of the rafter system are attached to nails, metal screws or wood anchors, their size depends on the thickness of the timber.
When the wooden frame is ready, you need to take care of the insulation and roofing. As its insulation, you can take non-combustible mineral wool, penoplex or expanded polystyrene.
The roof can be covered with various materials: light and durable metal tiles of various colors, moisture-proof roofing material or ondulin, which is available and easy to install, will be successful. The installation of the roof for the wooden bath is completed by the installation of additional elements (ridge strips, cornices, rain drains) and pipe insulation.
Bath windows and doors are best chosen from ordinary wood and mineral glass. You should not be smart with double-glazed windows, especially since the building over time gives a strong shrinkage, and the climate inside is unfavorable for plastic.
Before installing window packages and door frames, it is imperative to make a gap, which is subsequently clogged with polyurethane foam.
The construction of the bath is completed by its interior and exterior decoration. Arrangement inside is one of the most important points. The walls of the bath can be clad with clapboard or clapboard, which are the most popular options. Such a material must be chosen so that it does not absorb moisture, has low thermal conductivity, is protected from mold and mildew, allows air to pass through and does not emit resin when heated. Depending on the grade, there are 4 types of lining, the highest quality of which is extra class… Sheathing with this material takes place on small nails.
For the ceiling, floors and benches, you can take the same material as for the walls.… During installation, it is worth making small gaps everywhere, taking into account the expansion of the material when heated and swelling under the influence of moisture.
For the interior arrangement of the bath, you should not take lining treated with varnish or other dyes, since when heated they can melt and release harmful combustible components.
The dressing room, which is less affected by moisture or high temperatures, can be equipped with less picky finishing materials. To make it comfortable to change clothes in it, the floor should be covered with linoleum or even tiles. For walls, light-colored lining, PVC plastic panels or laminated MDF sheet are most suitable.
Even when planning a bath, attention should be paid to the laying of communications: electricity, water supply and sewerage. Long gone are the days when water was dragged into the steam room in buckets - any modern project involves the laying of water pipes. Today it is possible to purchase and install cheap and practical plastic options that are easily mounted and connected with a special soldering iron, and serve no less efficiently than cast iron ones. To remove wastewater, you can use them.
Before installing insulation and interior decoration, it is immediately worth laying electrical wiring connected to the household network. Cables should be placed in waterproof corrugations or boxes, lamp holders and switches should be mounted.
Baths can be insulated with various materials, the main thing is that they are protected from moisture and high temperatures. Recently, composite polymer heat insulators such as expanded polystyrene, penofol and penoplex have been popular.… In addition to retaining heat, they provide excellent moisture protection and breathability. Insulation is usually placed between the outer timber wall and the interior decorative trim.
Outside, a profiled timber bath is best decorated with a wood look. For this, you can use natural wood materials, metal or polymer siding. Some types of building materials, for example, rounded timber, do not need decorative cladding at all.
It is better not to use plaster: under the influence of temperature and moisture, it will quickly crack and fly off. It is best to cover the foundation with rubble or natural stone.
Beautiful examples of finished buildings
A very successful and beautiful example is the round timber bathhouse, equipped with a terrace and an open gallery. In profile, it has an angular shape. The building has two wings: the living area itself and a comfortable bathhouse.
Luxurious chalet-style sauna with a covered terrace on a foundation decorated with natural stone. It can be built both on a private suburban area and on a small recreation center.
A bathhouse made of laminated veneer lumber with a full-fledged second floor, where a spacious recreation area is located. Such a building, although it will cost a lot in terms of materials and installation, will make a huge impression on anyone who sees it.
For information on how to make a bath from a bar, see the next video.