Drywall is a common material used in construction. It is used to level walls, ceilings, to create additional partitions, niches and arches. Depending on the method of application of the material, it is customary to choose different fasteners.
Let's analyze the criteria for choosing fasteners for drywall.
Features of GCR
GKL for leveling walls, floors and ceilings are available on the market in abundance. If you do not have skills in construction work, it is better to understand the features even before going to the store.
GKL are rectangular sheets with gypsum filler and cardboard lining. The sheets have a smooth surface and are durable. Features of the gypsum board allow the use of sheets both in residential and non-residential premises. The sheets are distinguished by sound insulation properties. In addition to wall cladding, GKL is used for cladding sewer systems, achieving complete isolation of the latter … Sheets bend easily, and you can cut them with a regular hacksaw.
The smooth surface of the gypsum board lends itself to any additional processing. Sheets fixed to the wall are whitewashed, painted, plastered, pasted over with wallpaper.
Standard gypsum boards have the following dimensions: 1200 by 2500 mm … The area of the working surface of one sheet is quite large, so the work associated with the cladding can be carried out very quickly. For example, to level the walls with gypsum plasterboard, you need 2-3 times less time than it would have to spend on plastering and putty.
In addition, gypsum has a lower thermal conductivity than plaster. As a result of the use of sheets, not only sound insulation is obtained, but also insulation … The thermal conductivity of the gypsum board is such that in winter they are better able to retain heat, and in summer they prevent the room from overheating. Therefore, the use of sheets is justified both in the harsh Siberian conditions and in the hot southern regions.
Of the minuses of gypsum board, it is worth noting the impossibility of using conventional material in rooms with high humidity. Due to constant dampness, the cardboard lining will swell, and the gypsum will begin to crumble. This minus is relative, since manufacturers offer customers several types of gypsum board with different characteristic features. For example, wall material belongs to the standard type of gypsum board. It does not contain any special additives, and therefore the most inexpensive of all the materials presented.
Another inexpensive option GKL - ceiling. It differs from the previous version in smaller thickness … This one is more convenient to use for arches, other curved structures.
Sheets marked with gypsum plasterboard are distinguished by moisture resistant characteristics.… The dimensions of the sheets are standard, but the colors are usually greenish. Still on sale you can see sheets of a pinkish shade. with GKLO marking. These sheets are characterized by fire resistance … Chimneys and even fireplaces are sheathed with similar sheets.
Recently, you can see sheets on sale with GKLVO marking. These designs combine the improved performance of moisture-resistant and fire-resistant sheets.
GKL is also distinguished by the types of edges, which are:
- direct (PC) - do not need additional processing and sealing during installation;
- with thinning (UK) - these need to be sealed with reinforcing tape and putty;
- rounded (PLC) - only putty is possible;
- facial semicircular with thinning (PLUK) - it is possible to work with putty, reinforcing tape, without tape;
- rounded (ZK) - plastering is possible.
Types and characteristics of fasteners
All fasteners suitable for working with drywall are divided into several groups, the main ones of which are:
- for a frame made of wood or a metal profile;
- for fastening the frame itself;
- in order to screw into the sheets of drywall themselves.
- The first group of products includes elements used in the installation of frames and intended for gypsum plasterboard profiles. These special elements simplify the work, allow you to achieve high-quality results, even for those who have no experience in installation.
- The second group of products includes hardware, which also allows you to perform work in a better quality. Self-tapping screws on the market are presented in a large number of options. For certain works, you need to choose certain types, otherwise high-quality fastening will not work.
- The third group of products includes dowels. Without them, it is impossible to carry out installation work with various structural elements. The configuration of products varies greatly depending on their intended use.
Features of future elements are taken into account depending on the method of decoration, as well as other factors. The general features of the fasteners are that they are screwed into the sheets with a slight recession so that there are no hats protruding above the surface. The standard offset from the edge of the sheet is about one centimeter … It is necessary to decide on the types of fasteners in advance. The choice of the type of fastener is associated with the features of the frame, more precisely, with its base.
For a metal frame, self-tapping screws with a frequent threading step are selected. The thickness of the metal matters, which can exceed 0.7 mm. The screws for this profile are selected with a drill at the end, not with a normal point. Pointed screws are used for profiles with a thickness of more than 2.2 mm.
Self-tapping screws for wood have a rarer threading pitch. This is the main difference to look out for when shopping.
However, experts distinguish between more detailed types and characteristics of fasteners by special markings, which usually include two numbers. The first value is usually referred to the diameter of the screw, and the second value to its length. For instance, if the drywall is single-layer, self-tapping screws 3.5x25 mm are used, if the drywall is in two layers - 3.5x35 mm … Fastener caps are concealed, spherical, or hemispherical. The main fasteners are countersunk head and cruciform end.
Fasteners are also distinguished by the composition of the material. They are made of steel, brass, there are also elements with a protective coating of zinc or phosphates. Steel - inexpensive, durable, but can rust from time to time … Brass does not corrode, but they are weak in strength characteristics. High strength and toughness are provided by sliding fasteners made of coated steel.
The material from which the self-tapping screw is made is easily identified by its color:
- if the hardware is white, it is brass or galvanized steel;
- if the hardware is yellow - oxidized (stainless);
- if the hardware is black - so it is steel, hardened.
For each variant of work, the most suitable components should be selected.
For mounting to the frame
For this work, TN and TB screws are used - 3.5x25 mm.
Experts advise to work with a tool with a special limiting nozzle.
A screwdriver with this attachment will ensure accurate screwing in of the screw, which will not spoil the cardboard layer.
Dowel "butterfly" is installed in a hole drilled in the sheet, and when the screw is screwed in, it expands in the space behind the sheet. The action of the "molly" dowel is similar to the "butterfly".
However, unlike this option Molly - metal dowel, and therefore can withstand a large load force. The "molly" dowel is also inserted into the hole in the sheet, then screwed in until it stops, which entails the opening of the element, and then the gypsum board is attached.
Driva - a simple and convenient dowel that does not require pre-drilling. The "drive" fasteners are screwed in with a screwdriver or even an ordinary screwdriver. Usually it is needed in places where there will be baguettes, cornices, baseboards, and other details.
Screw-in - a fastener element that is needed to fasten various objects to the installed sheets. Screws allow you to tighten screws for shelves, mirrors, paintings or lamps.
Experts advise to mount any objects, even a small mass, with the help of screwdrivers. Their peculiarity is that, falling into the void, they twist into a knot. Therefore, this element, which looks like a nail, is usually made of polypropylene, that is, it has elasticity.
For wall mounting
The frame is assembled first and then attached to the wall. To complete the assembly, you need several elements.
Dowels with plastic or metal sleeve … These elements are needed for mounting brackets and profiles to the bearing vertical.
Experts advise to distinguish between plastic and metal sleeves, since the former can be used for aerated concrete and hollow bricks, and the latter for solid bricks or concrete.
The frame is assembled using metal screws.
Experts advise to take the piercing self-tapping screw LN and the drilling hardware LB (from 6 to 16 mm).
The choice of fasteners is also related to the weight of the frame. For example, if it is heavy, then experts advise using anchor bolts. They are screwed into the metal base of the dowel, expanding it and providing a secure fixation.
The simplest mount is dowel-nail, which secures the frame to a concrete or brick base … For reliable fixation, a hole of the required diameter is drilled in the wall, after which a plastic dowel is inserted into it, and a screw is driven into it with a hammer. If necessary, the screw is screwed in deeper or unscrewed altogether. Removing the dowel is almost impossible.
Additional elements are also used to assemble the frame:
Without these elements, an even and firmly fixed profile structure will not work. The suspension provides greater rigidity. The length of the products varies from 30 cm, and the width from 3 cm. The product is equipped with holes that are needed for fastening.
There are many product variations on the market, for example, there are suspensions with a sound insulating insert. Parts with rubber element effectively prevent vibration.
Anchor type hangers
These details are mainly needed when arranging a ceiling structure. One part of the part is a retainer, and the other looks like a spring. Despite the simple design, the part is comfortable and reliable.
- Straight-through connectors … This part is needed to connect the T-shaped parts of the frame. The element ensures maximum speed of work and reliability.
- Swivel connectors … These elements are needed when there is a need to fix the frame in a straight and inclined plane at the same time. These parts connect parts of the profile at an angle, but in the same plane. Fasteners add strength to the structure.
It is worth mentioning separately vernier suspension, which is unknown to a wide range of amateurs. Not all drywall installation professionals know how to use a vernier hanger. Meanwhile this element allows you to more accurately set the level of the ceiling and hang it very reliably … The use of a gimbal requires an accurate and correct understanding of the system design. The element includes several parts that differ in their characteristics.
The lower part is a fastener. With this knot, the element is fixed to the profile and the strip with holes. The plank allows you to accurately align the frame element and securely fix it. The attachment to the suspension has the form of a clamp - a durable and easy-to-use solution.
The upper part of the system is a plank with holes in the sides. Through the strip with holes, the rod is fixed on the ceiling with screws or dowels. Products can be 10 to 20 cm long. This allows the sheets to be mounted at the desired level.
The required position of the entire structure is provided by the so-called cotter pin … The element is a classic bracket that is inserted into the holes. Experts advise to bend the end of the cotter pin. This will ensure the best fixing reliability.
The element is indispensable in places where it is necessary to significantly lower the ceiling level and ensure reliable fixation. One part can support up to 40 kg and is easy to install.
The price of this product includes the price of all three constituent elements. For example, the lower part is sold at 30-35 rubles, the upper part is sold at a price of 20 to 50 rubles, and the cotter pin will cost about 10 rubles.
Another detail that is invariably used by specialists, but rarely by amateurs - profile extension … The connector is rarely used, since many in working with elements simply cut or twist them. However, if you need to do everything according to the rules, it is better to use a special connector.
The element has the following dimensions:
- height - 3 cm;
- width - 5-6 cm;
- length -10-11 cm.
The element is made of metal about 1 mm thick. The special shape of the element ensures high rigidity of the connection. The process of connecting the profile with an extension cord is simple. The cost of products is up to 10 rubles, usually you need a little of them.
Additional details will help to quickly and reliably connect the profiles to each other. It is usually installed inside the profile on the load-bearing part. Jumpers are added to the system later. After the installation of the parts, the special antennae of the element are bent, and fasteners are screwed into them. Complex knots of the frame are assembled quickly and reliably thanks to the "crabs".
"Crabs" allow you to connect the frame jumpers from one or both sides.
If the connection is one-way, then the extra jumpers are simply removed. This intervention will not affect the strength and rigidity of the system.
The main thing is to choose metal elements with a thickness of one millimeter or more. It is better to refuse to purchase these products from a thinner metal, since in this case the rigidity of the metal matters. The cost varies from 10 to 15 rubles.
Another category of additional elements is special fasteners to attach some objects to the gypsum board wall. Do not hang a mirror, shelf or TV on a plasterboard wall with a regular self-tapping screw. It will not provide a secure fit. This task requires a special element called Chemical anchor.
These peculiar anchors contain an adhesive mixture inside. It creates a strong and secure mount that even a layman can handle.
Installation of the "chemical anchor" is not complicated. In the course of work, the capsule releases its contents, a reaction begins, and as a result, the fastening is very reliable.
Professionals advise to consider the following rules when working with these dowels:
- drill the exact hole, taking special care if a screwdriver is used;
- fasteners should not rotate at the point of occurrence;
- do not screw the part into the stop;
- for accuracy, the final screwing is best done with a regular screwdriver.
As you can see from the samples presented, the options for fasteners have different functions, they also differ in price.
You need to choose elements depending on the complexity of the design and the method of installation. It is difficult to do this without certain skills, so let's figure it out in more detail.
How to choose?
On sale you can find self-tapping screws with different threads. Elements are also sold with and without a drill. Elements with a drill are designed for fastening the gypsum board to metal, the thickness of which is from 3 to 10 mm.
When installing ceilings and partitions made of gypsum plasterboard, it is better to grip the surfaces with 9.5 mm self-tapping screws with a drill. Professionals call these fasteners "seeds". In general, the sizes of fasteners on sale vary: 9.5 mm, 11 mm, 15 mm, 25 mm, 35 mm, 45 mm, 50 mm, 75 mm, 95 mm, 120 mm.
In a log frame, which is used for heavy structures, it is better to use self-tapping screws with a fine thread. In a wooden house, but on a metal frame, self-tapping screws with fine threads are used.
For work with gypsum plasterboard in the kitchen, self-tapping screws 2.5 cm without a drill are mainly chosen, as well as "seeds" with a drill. They are inserted into suitable dowels. Self-tapping screws 3.5 cm, 4.5 cm in size are used without a drill, also with appropriate dowels.
- If you have to work with a metal frame 1 mm thick, an ordinary self-tapping screw with a drill can drill through the part. Experts recommend using "seeds" with classic dowels.
- If the profile is metal, then dowels 6 by 40 mm are the most suitable option for a plastered wall. There is not much difference between dowels with a cap and without it, but if there is a need to hide a fastening element, it is better to choose a secret option.
- If between the drywall and the wall, in addition to the frame, there are insulation materials, the fasteners should be chosen longer, up to 8 cm. Standard 4 cm dowels are not suitable for such work.
Armstrong ceiling hangers are usually mounted on metal dowels. For all other cases, it is better to choose the percussive options.
Impact dowel - dowel-nail, which includes an expansion dowel and a screw-type nail.
If the plasterboard structure is fixed to the ceiling, it is better to choose a dowel made of molly metal. It is also suitable for work with hollow structures.
To speed up the installation work associated with the installation of the gypsum board, you can use the Driva plastic dowel. Installation of the element is allowed without a drill., and the greatest weight load can be up to 25 kg.
For a baguette, chandelier, plinth, and other items, a special butterfly dowel can be used. The principles of this dowel are described above.
You can also choose fasteners based on price. Fasteners are usually sold in packs of 100 or more.
The cost per package varies and is related to many factors. For example, plastic items are cheap - up to 100 rubles per package. Metal options are much more expensive - up to 600 rubles for a package of fasteners. You can save money not only by choosing a cheaper mounting option, but also by correctly calculating the number of fasteners.
The consumption of the number of selected self-tapping screws for the gypsum board is associated with the option of the installed frame. For example, for a wooden base, the standard building step is 35 cm, and for a metal one is 30-60 cm. For multilayer structures, not only longer self-tapping screws are selected, but they are also installed more often.
To ensure acceptable rigidity, it is customary to fix the sheets to the multilayer frame in increments of 20 to 40 cm. Taking into account the dimensions of the standard gypsum board - 1.2x2.5 m, about 120 fasteners will be needed per sheet. When buying fasteners, it is important to make sure that the packaging is intact, inspect the screws for damage to the threads or caps.
Rejected packaging should not be taken, otherwise the screws may not be enough.
GKL is rarely attached directly to the wall, usually to a metal or wood frame.
To fix brackets and profiles to the bearing vertical, experts recommend choosing dowels with a sleeve, which is made of metal or plastic. If the vertical is made of solid brick or concrete, then a metal dowel should be used. If the wall is made of aerated concrete or hollow brick, you can get by with a soft plastic mount. Then the profile is fixed in the dowel with a locking screw.
To assemble the frame from a metal profile, metal screws are selected. Commonly used options:
- self-tapping screw LN;
- drilling screw LB with dimensions 6-16 mm.
For sheathing the frame with sheets, TN TB self-tapping screws with dimensions of 3.5x25 mm are used. To fix the plates better, you need a screwdriver with a special stop. The nozzle allows you to screw the screw exactly to the required depth without breaking through the cardboard layer.
The purpose and type of dowels is determined by their marking:
- HD-S 4 | 14 MHD-S 4 | 20 - dowel for hollow structures, fastening PN, PP profiles and attachments to sheet structures;
- MN6 | 30 MN 8 | 40 MN 10 | 50 MN 12 | 60 MN 14 | 70 - nylon dowel for PN, PP, UP profiles of attachments and walls of the solid version;
- MU 6 | 35 MU 6 | 45 MU 8 | 50 MU 10 | 60 MU 12 | 70 MU 14 | 75 - multifunctional dowel for PN PP UP profiles, attachments for hollow wall options;
- MNA-Z 6 | 35 MNA-Z 6 | 50 - anchor dowel made of plastic for fixing PN profiles and suspensions to load-bearing walls and floors;
- MAN 6 | 60 - wedge anchor for fastening the frame to the load-bearing walls;
- TDN 6 | 40 - anchor dowel for fixing the frame to the bearing walls;
- MJP 12 | 39 - a dowel for attaching attachments to plasterboard sheets.
General recommendations for the selection of fasteners from professionals:
- all types of self-tapping screws differ not only in the principle of operation, but also in technical and operational qualities;
- despite the emergence of convenient and reliable technologies and methods - fastening the gypsum board with screws and dowels - the most often used by both professionals and amateurs.
In the video below, you will see a comparative overview of drywall anchors.