A variety of materials are widely used in wall decoration. Siding is not the last among them. But these simple and beautiful-looking panels need to be mounted using a special technology.
Features of the
It is possible to sheathe the walls of the house with siding without any problems. The reasons for the popularity of this material are obvious - a variety of types and shapes, an affordable price. Wall panels are supplied by a variety of companies from many countries, so there is plenty to choose from. But a wide range of varieties does not allow making a final decision, analyzing siding as a whole. It is recommended to calculate in advance how many and what parts will have to be used, how to connect the blocks to the load-bearing wall and to each other.
Siding was first used in the 19th century in North America. It was then that it was decided to mount the boards not end-to-end, but "with a raid". This avoids the penetration of rainwater through the cladding and damage to building structures. The lack of protective equipment did not allow for the long-term service of the structures. Only in the middle of the last century did vinyl (PVC) panels enter the market; from year to year, siding is becoming more and more perfect, it has long overcome "childhood illnesses" that prevented it from competing with other materials.
In addition to differences in the base substance, the difference may relate to the color of the products and their texture. Every self-respecting manufacturer supplies siding in a variety of tones to the market. The assortment of modern companies includes imitations of natural stone and wood. It is harder to make such an imitation of aluminum than of vinyl, so the payment for such blocks will be higher. It is more convenient to analyze the rest of the features using the example of individual types of material.
Types of material
In appearance, facade siding resembles clapboard, but cannot be considered an ideally sealed solution. This is rather a plus, since 100% clogged walls would quickly deteriorate. Some types of panels for outdoor decoration can work for about half a century, and cleaning them is not difficult. The vinyl variety is only called that, in fact, it is formed from polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
- mechanically flexible;
- fade and crack a little;
- easily mounted;
- differ in insignificant weight;
- do not cause environmental damage;
- allow to operate the system for a long time at high and low temperatures;
- do not corrode.
Installation flexibility is normal for most jobs. PVC panels can be painted in a variety of colors, the selection of the pigment is individual. Polyvinyl chloride is indifferent to acids of almost any strength. This means that even if there is a large industrial enterprise nearby, there is no risk. Mounting is allowed in horizontal and vertical planes.
But the vinyl option is soft and does not allow for selective replacement of deformed blocks. We'll have to disassemble the entire lined wall. Aluminum structures should be preferred by those who prioritize durability. The flip side of this advantage is the increase in weight compared to PVC, but it is not too significant. Aluminum is easy to install, and at the same time it confidently survives even the load from squalls and strong stable winds; therefore, its cost must be recognized as justified.
Classic metal siding is formed from steel sheets with an outer zinc layer. Such a material is capable of imitating natural wood, and developers often take advantage of this circumstance. After all, the continuous smoothness of the surface is not very attractive in terms of design. In order for the metal to work longer and not fall victim to atmospheric elements, it is covered with a polymer film. Structures with a lock are easily and quickly assembled, there is no need to spend money on fasteners.
Metal will have to be monitored constantly, because it can degrade very quickly. One has only to appear a small scratch, and now the development of corrosion begins, and soon it will corrode a vast area. Fans of new products should think about ceramic siding, which experts recognize as the most promising invention. There is no need to doubt safety, because the structure is made from natural clay, and not from dubious components. The outer layer can resemble the surface of a simple wooden house.
By the way, wood itself is also quite good for making siding. Such a solution is more expensive than many others and is called a block house. But if you wish, you can buy other options - a board or a fake timber. It is allowed to use in the manufacture of not only solid wood, but also glued blocks. Handling and maintenance are the weak points of wood siding; even constant attention to it does not allow the material to work long enough.
Wood tends to swell and warp when exposed to moisture - special impregnations slightly improve the situation, but do not fundamentally correct it. Additional protection measures, together with treatment with non-combustible substances, insecticides, increase resistance, but only the dream of a natural wall will have to be abandoned. In a special group, it is worth highlighting the siding for the basement, which is not so beautiful, but it protects against damage better than the wall. This is the only task of such products, their thickness starts from 0.3 cm. To make siding for the basement, they use especially strong materials that are distinguished by increased weight.
The use of fiber cement siding involves the use of cellulose fibers. The final stage is the formation of the texture, like that of wood. Such material easily tolerates the impact of temperature jerks and precipitation. Aggressive wind and fungi, insects are not dangerous for him. The coating provides a quick renovation of the building and giving it an original look, leveling the walls; it is also non-flammable and retains its color for a long time.
When choosing options for facing a summer cottage or a private house, you need to pay attention primarily to the color. Light colors, as in any other design area, help to visually expand the volume of the room.
More often than not, this motive means that consumers will choose:
- beige and similar tones.
It is always necessary to remember that each company, in pursuit of uniqueness and promotion of its original product, tries to come up with its own nomenclature of names. It is much more correct not to rely on the familiar "name" of the color, but to check with the standard code according to the generally accepted table. Then there will be no problems and misunderstandings when finishing. If the goal is not to highlight the facades in relation to the surroundings, it is recommended to use dark panels or blocks with a discreet neutral color.
In some cases, powerful, bright tones are chosen, in others - less attention is paid to themselves., and yet not losing their appeal. A respectable building erected or repaired by respectable owners simply cannot be decorated with frivolous plots and drawings. For your information: it is extremely rare to apply green and brown paints. They blend in with the vegetation, and a siding house is almost always surrounded by a garden, vegetable garden, or just a lawn. If, nevertheless, there is a craving for just such colors, you need to choose them as single accents, and not as a monolithic background.
Harmony of transitions is most easily achieved by using combinations within the same color. It is this solution that should be used where there are many structures that go beyond the dimensions of the facade. Violation of this rule is allowed only for designers who are guided by professional considerations. You should never forget about the combination of wall color with roofing and basement elements, they try to bring it closer together, and not create an expressive contrast.
Originality can be shown by using the layout of the panels vertically and horizontally at the same time on one building; but for beginners whose experience is insufficient, it is too difficult. If the house is very stocky, stocky, it is advisable to choose a horizontal layout. Texture is another vast field for experimentation.
Imitations are quite common:
- stone surfaces;
- a real tree.
Calculation of the amount of material
Having dealt with the design aspects, it is equally important to calculate the need for a profile, additional elements, accessories and fasteners according to the size of the surface to be finished. Customers have several ways to carry out the required calculations. They often rely on the opinion of employees of trade organizations, because they are aware of the peculiarities of all materials, they have specialized software for calculations. But even if you imagine someone really tuned in to the interest of the user, and not to the profit of the seller, the lack of accurate drawings and sketches will not allow you to calculate everything accurately. Those consumers who build or repair something themselves professionally can perform the calculation as accurately as possible.
All other customers should contact the specialists and invite them for a direct acquaintance with the object. But it is advisable to call the measurer not associated with the company that will install the siding. Controlling extraneous calculations or calculating the need for panels on your own, you need to divide the usable area of the facade by the usable area of a single panel. A reserve is added to the result obtained for the greatest reliability. Long-term experience of builders shows that on straight walls there is enough stock for cutting in 7%; if the surface is more complex in shape, it is worth increasing it to 10-12%.
When calculating, you need to proceed from the useful, and not from the total length of the panels. When the walls differ in height, the need for material is calculated for each of them separately, and then the result is added. It is not worth subtracting from the total area small dormer windows, ventilation air vents, fastening of an air conditioner and a satellite dish. This will only complicate the calculation, but will not make it more useful in real business. It is always worth remembering that siding cladding implies the creation of a frame that makes the wall longer, and that insulation also increases the area.
Siding consumption for gables is calculated separately. There, a different color is required, and often it is not possible to limit ourselves to standard geometry. Even if the wall is laid out from horizontal panels, gables with vertical blocks are not uncommon. In addition, the panels there should be cut at the ends at strictly defined angles. Therefore, the amount of waste grows sharply, which can no longer be used.
Instead of using mathematical formulas and connecting to calculator sites, you can use a graphical technique. A drawing (sketch) of the wall is applied to a sheet of paper, strictly corresponding to the selected scale. This approach will give a good result if everything is measured, and, moreover, without errors. Next, paper strips are cut, which are proportional to the length and width of the panels to be installed. Everyone who in childhood at least occasionally collected a mosaic, have already guessed, of course, what will happen now.
You don't even need to manually combine the stripes. The same visual result is obtained by using any graphic editor. Moreover, the accuracy of calculations (if no errors are made with taking dimensions and geometry) will even increase. Increased accuracy can reduce waste material to less than 7%. At the same time, we must not forget about the formation of ventilation holes and channels.
To install the siding properly, it's not enough just to choose the right type, figure out the design and calculate the material consumption according to all the rules. The work is always carried out using special tools. If you break this rule, you can not only get a bad result, but also lose the manufacturer's warranty. Moreover, everything will be legitimate and fair, since it falls under the category of erroneous actions of builders. It is useful to disassemble the technology using the example of vinyl panels.
Hand tools - simple and metal hacksaw, screwdriver, water level, square. All work with them must be carried out on a workbench, which is more reliable than without a stand. It is also permissible to use electrical devices such as an electric circular saw. As the danger grows noticeably, it is required to observe safety measures. Power tools and pneumatic machines require support even more than manual handling.
To lengthen the holes in the panels, you need to use a hammer drill. If any panel is out of order, a dismantling hook will help to change it. Since it is difficult to install siding blocks in the upper parts of the walls or under the windows, punches are used there. These fixtures help create hooks that will hold the panels better and more stable. But one way or another, all work can be done by hand, without contacting specialized companies.
Even before placing the starting bar on the wall, you need to properly prepare the surface, you must in advance:
- finish all other work on the facade;
- caulk the seams in the walls from the log house;
- remove unnecessary fasteners;
- prepare wires and connection points for communications to the output in the right places;
- install thermal insulation, waterproofing, vapor barrier, acoustic protection (in accordance with the project);
- dismantle the platbands from all openings;
- replace rotten boards;
- strengthens all loose structures.
Stone, industrial blocks, and uneven wood walls are designed to be fastened to the sheathing, which makes the outer layer smoother. It is required to make the crate from dry wood, which has a moisture content strictly not higher than 14%. Those who violate this rule suffer greatly from the "leading" mass. Bars of typical sections are impregnated with antiseptic compounds. By making the grilles as wide as possible, the failure of the fasteners can be prevented, no matter how one or another panel is placed.
Installation of the lathing is carried out along the perimeter of the walls to be finished. Do not bypass the gables of roofs and the perimeter of windows, other openings. It is better to refuse from the lower horizontal grilles around the perimeter, since they will block the exchange of air with the external environment. Other laths are placed vertically (if the siding will be located along a horizontal line) or vice versa. The gap from one to the other is 200 to 400 mm; the step of fixing on the wall is 50-70 cm.
Installation begins by placing corner laths. The cords are stretched between them and then the crate is nailed. In order for the distance between the laths and the walls to be regulated, it is required to use direct hangers or leveling wood pads. Building levels help to check how vertically and evenly the crate is placed. In the absence of such levels, cords and plumb lines can be used.
Having found the lowest angle, 50 mm retreat upward from it. This line is marked around the perimeter, a water level is used for control. Nails are driven in the corners, just not too deep. Nails hold the stretched cords, then insert corner profiles to the corners. The lathing of the places is marked where the strips for the nails should be located. The horizontal offset of 0.6 cm will show where the profiles of the original stripes should be placed.
It is necessary to install frames under siding to provide moisture-repelling and heat-retaining layers. The choice of material for the guides is a personal matter for the builders. But general considerations should take into account all decisive ones to do the siding cladding themselves. Thus, the increased payment for a metal structure is justified by its durability and mechanical strength. The wood is supposed to be impregnated with liquids that stop the development of pathological fungi and mold.
If you ignore such a requirement, you can face a violation of the integrity of the structures in a few years. The lathing is installed in the same way as the panels. For fastening, screws and nails are used (if the substrate is wooden), or dowels (on brick and concrete walls). The gap between the walls and the lathing is 100-150 mm, but each case should be approached individually. The wood sheathing should be installed on dry days, as even initially dried wood can easily become saturated with moisture.
The initial lines of the siding are separated by an interval of 1-1.2 cm. The profiles should not be abutted against the nail strips or against each other. If such an emphasis is placed, the thermal expansion of the overheated siding can bend it. It should be noted that self-installation of panels is much more profitable than hiring specialists. The fees for their services can be as high as 50 or even 60% of the cost of materials. Step-by-step instructions for laying out siding can be found in many sources, but the recommendations of the manufacturers cannot be ignored. They advise at the bottom to attach a layer of vapor barrier, then there are distance bars (first crate). Insulation material is placed above them. The technology prescribes to put the insulation in two layers, then the second line of the sheathing is placed. Only then is it time to lay the siding itself.
To do everything correctly, this approach will have to be modified and refined. If the walls are insulated with mineral wool, it is necessary to form ventilation gaps. Layers of thermal protection are laid out with the obligatory shift of the plates. In most cases, polystyrene foam is used. Since the sun's rays will not fall on the insulation, finishing materials and plaster will not touch it, you can choose the cheapest type of foam.
Before attaching the siding outside, you need to inspect the house and take a few measurements. Finding an unevenness using long, even rods and cords or tape measures, you can immediately eliminate the defect. The permissible deviation from an ideal straight line is 1.2 cm on a single plane or line. The difference between the diagonals of the openings of windows and doors should not exceed 0.6 cm. Installation of siding panels on inclined buildings, which generally retain the appearance of a rectangle, is allowed.
Then, using a level and a plumb line, they check right angles, horizontal lines in relation to the base and the ground. A house tilted more than 2.5 cm in relation to the subsidence cannot be sheathed! After all, then it turns out that the building is in a critical, if not catastrophic, position. And even if it was possible to visually correct the surface of the facade by laying siding, all the same, very soon the defects will return. Perhaps they will even get worse, since it will still not work to check the condition of the material under the decorative layer, but it will deteriorate.
If the lathing is formed from rectangular planks or bars, they should be attached to the wall with a narrow edge. If deviations from the norm are no more than 0.3 cm, it is required to use single-level structures. The best option among them is the linear format. When the deviations of the walls from the norm range from 0.3 to 0.6 cm, it is allowed to use a single-level lathing made of wood or a structure with two levels of metal, more precisely, from profile C. Violations of the plane of 6-12 mm require the use of either two wooden levels, or a metal system.
In the first case, plywood linings are used at individual joints, in the second, adjusting strips. If you use a metal crate, a natural question arises about insulation. It seems as if there is no point in this, because the frame will let the cold through. But this problem is easily solved when the profile at the point of attachment to the walls or under the adjusting strips is lined with paronite gaskets or basalt cardboard. The same materials help to correct the lags, to make them smoother.
It is possible to exclude the occurrence of a cold bridge in the body of a self-tapping screw if it is not inserted directly into the wall, but first into a plastic dowel. It is recommended to use self-tapping screws that have a diameter of 0.4 to 0.6 cm and at the same time are embedded in the structure by at least 6 cm. The best self-tapping screws are covered with a layer of phosphates (they are painted black), they are not subject to rust. It is necessary to vary the fastening step from 35 to 50 cm, taking into account the intensity of the winds. If there is an old solid wood sheathing underneath, it will be useful as a good underlayment.
Particular attention should be paid to the design of the gables with siding. Most of this part of the house is decorated with vinyl elements. But we have to take into account that even exceptionally high-quality PVC panels can burst under the influence of severe frost. You need to carefully evaluate all sizes, because making the panel too short will not fix the defect. The height of the pediment is measured between the gutters.
The easiest way to assess the vertical clearances from thermal expansion is to lock a pair of panels together. When the roof has slopes of different sizes, it is required to form a couple of templates, and to prepare special profiles according to them. It is recommended to finish the pediment from scaffolding. It is safer and more convenient than using a ladder. It is recommended to design and install the finishing material after the roof has been erected; then you need to work on the corners and cornices.
The choice of siding for the walls of a country or country house cannot be limited to a simple determination of the appropriate type. It is required to check whether the color of the material is uniform. After all, high-quality material is uniform in appearance both from the inside and from the outside. Budget designs can be lighter inside than outside. The reason is simple: pigment is the most expensive ingredient in siding formulations.
The thickness of the panels on all parts must be exactly the same. If a difference occurs, the behavior of the structure can become unpredictable, it deforms very quickly. When dimensional distortion is clearly visible even without measurements, it is better not to buy such material. It is extremely important to check the holes with which nails or screws are attached in the upper parts of the panels. Such holes should be perfectly even and mutually identical. If the edge is not too smooth, it indicates a violation of technology.
A glance at the front surface will also tell a lot to specialists and connoisseurs. A quality product is covered with a matte layer, gloss is undesirable for vinyl siding. The product of optimal quality is packaged properly using sturdy cardboard boxes. Polyethylene is more economical, but in it the panels can collapse under their own weight or under careless influence. The ductility must be high. By bending the area near the nail edge, you can immediately appreciate it: bad siding will break at the same time.
The installation of the profile is carried out in steps of 0.5 m; hangers are used to attach it to the wall. This practice minimizes the differences in surface relief and helps to fix the elements strictly at a certain level.
The technology prohibits the use of the following to form the lathing:
- layered (exfoliating) material;
- deformed blocks;
- wood with blue spots, rot and through knots.
Profiles are required to be joined at the same level on either side of the house. Instead of the corner profile, you can mount two starting blocks in the shape of the letter J. But this is allowed only if the wall is previously glued with roll waterproofing. Otherwise, its tightness will be in question. It is required to leave a gap of 0.3 cm from the profile to the soffit, and the lowest edge of the profiles should go 6 mm farther than the J bar.
Fasteners must be hammered or screwed strictly into the centers of the prepared holes. Even to the metal, you should not press the caps too tightly. Then thermal deformation will not cause negative manifestations. Fastening is made from the left and bottom. It is strictly forbidden to pierce with fasteners any places that are not intended for this by design.
Facing a log house with any materials, including siding, can be done only after the completion of shrinkage, that is, when at least ½ year has passed after the completion of construction. Otherwise the shrinking tree will pull chaotically all the trimmings. It is not recommended to paint the siding outside as it may compromise the quality of the structure If you do not have a lot of experience in doing work with your own hands, it is better to seek help from professionals. A noticeable rise in the cost of the cladding is justified when its independent installation cannot be done efficiently.
There are many ways to beautifully perform siding installation. Horizontally oriented panels (moderately light) will not smudge and at the same time create a pleasant appearance. The arrangement of windows on a facade finished in this way can be quite intricate - the building will not get worse because of this. Stylish metal siding looks luxurious and solemn, but at the same time completely calm. The imitation of the timber shown in the photo turns out to be quite plausible and in harmony with the color of the perimeter of the window openings.
Even the much lighter tone of the siding on the pediment is not perceived as an alien way, it becomes an original and fresh contrast. And here a completely different approach is demonstrated. The designers preferred to use perfectly flat panels of an attractive chocolate shade. The texture of various natural woods below is replaced by the brickwork of the basement. The lower part of the roof ledge and the downpipe are painted albeit in a different color, but still there is strict harmony between them, the exterior is laconic in appearance.
See below for more details.