Devices and devices for heating buildings will not be able to effectively cope with their functional tasks without correctly and efficiently insulated bases of the building: roof, walls, foundation and floor. For these purposes, various materials are used that differ in their technical characteristics and properties. As for wall insulation, in this case it is worth highlighting such insulation as foam, which has found its application in modern construction.
Features of the
The specificity of the climate makes it necessary to resort to the use of different methods of maintaining a comfortable temperature in a residential building. It is the foam presented on the market in various versions that not only makes it possible to seal the cracks, but also acts as a heat-insulating material.
Residential buildings require mandatory insulation, since the internal microclimate will depend on the performance of these works both in the warm season and in winter. As a result, living in such a house will be comfortable for residents, regardless of the outside temperature.
In addition, products for insulation have a positive effect on the durability of the structure, providing a certain level of protection for materials from external factors.
It should be noted that the use of foam is quite a topical issue from the point of view of energy saving., because the rise in prices for services makes us look for alternative ways to save heat in the house as much as possible.
Today, a large assortment of heaters is presented on the shelves of supermarkets and markets, but it is foam-forming products in cylinders or large containers that have become in great demand.
Mounting foam can be used both for interior work with foundations, and for processing the facade from the outside. Products are a fairly effective option for thermal insulation, since it is the gaseous components that are characterized by the lowest values of thermal conductivity. Foam, when viewed in an enlarged form, has a porous structure, due to which a layer of immobilized air is formed.
It comes in several varieties. The main differences between commercially available materials are that one substance is realized in a liquid state, while the other is a semi-liquid two-component composition.
The sprayed product is applied to the work surface, where, in the course of the chemical reaction of the constituent components of the foam and air, the foaming process takes place. The resulting substance increases in size to the required volume, after which the heat-insulating composition solidifies.
It is worth noting the positive features of the use of such insulation materials
- High level of adhesion of foam to various substrates. Therefore, to carry out the work, there is no need to equip additional frames, as is the case with products in the form of blocks or mats. This feature allows you to save money, as well as significantly reduce the time for thermal insulation of the building.
- Due to its structure, a substance such as foam will exactly repeat the shape of a surface of any complexity, which facilitates the creation of a heat-insulating layer, and also allows this product to be classified as a universal product.
- The ability of the material to expand from contact with air makes it possible for the foam to easily penetrate into any gap, even with minimal dimensions, which is important for insulating windows, pipes, ceilings, etc.
- At the end of the polymerization process, the foam forms a monolithic layer without seams, which is the main feature of the product, since no rigid type of thermal insulation material has such a quality.
- Considering such an indicator as thermal resistance, foam for insulation has a maximum value, therefore the level of thermal insulation, even with a small layer of substance, will have the highest characteristics.
- For the sprayed composition, there is no need to carry out complex preparatory work with a working base. The whole processing process consists in applying and waiting for the foam to solidify.
- Due to the porous structure, the material additionally provides sound insulation of the premises.
- The substance has a minimum weight, therefore it does not load the base with itself.
- After the final solidification, the foam becomes completely safe for human health and the environment.
- The composition does not form microorganisms. In addition, the foam will not act as a habitat for insects and rodents.
- Almost all types of foam for thermal insulation tolerate contact with metal well, providing it with protection against corrosion, preventing the penetration of water and steam. As a result, the composition acts as a waterproofing layer, which is important not only for walls, but also, for example, for the roof and various floors.
- The products are heat-resistant: the material can withstand heating up to +80 C.
In addition to the above advantages, the foam is characterized by the presence of some disadvantages
- Insulating walls and other surfaces requires the use of special equipment, which in some cases complicates the process of doing work with your own hands.
- Such a thermal insulation product has a rather high cost compared to other types of building materials that allow buildings to be insulated.
- For the most part, foam formulations are not resistant to ultraviolet light, therefore it is necessary to provide the applied thermal insulation layer with reliable protection from sunlight.
- Some components of the foam are toxic; therefore, individual safety measures must be strictly observed when applying the composition. However, after complete solidification, it does not pose a threat to health.
Types and characteristics
Foam for insulation is classified based on the composition and structure of the material, therefore, several types of products can be distinguished.
Penoizol. The composition of the insulation includes components of the aldehyde group, due to which it is dangerous to humans. The polymerization period is 72 hours. The foam is recommended for application on walls, load-bearing elements of various structures, for the treatment of attics. On sale you can find products in the form of plates or in a liquid state
Foam concrete. Such a composition is realized in cylinders, however, some experts do not recommend using it for work with the facade. This is due to the large mass of the substance, due to which the load on the surface increases
In addition, foam concrete belongs to the line of expensive goods.
Polyurethane foam. Based on the technical characteristics, such a composition is not inferior to the rest of the representatives of goods in this category. A positive feature of the material should be considered the ease of installation, due to which the processing of walls with foam can be performed without the involvement of specialists. The assembly composition goes on sale in small cylinders. According to consumer reviews, the composition after processing increases in size 20 times
Polyurethane. The most demanded products among the presented types. The popularity of the substance is due to its versatility. The material belongs to the group of two-component compounds. The production technology requires mixing the ingredients before use. Compared to polyurethane foam, polyurethane insulation has a large increase in volume: the substance increases in size by 40 times. In addition, there will be a greater number of bubbles in the structure of the formed layer, which has a positive effect on thermal conductivity
Scope of application
In light of the wide range of foams on the market today, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the scope of use of a particular formulation.
As for penoizol, it is recommended for insulating frame structures. Such a composition fills the voids between the walls inside and outside, the wall and plastic material, the base and plasterboard sheets, as well as between the floor and the floor covering. Such a composition will provide reliable protection for the facade of the house from external factors, including precipitation.
Polyurethane foam is used when installing solid heat-insulating materials, after which the formed seams are sealed with the same composition. The products will come in handy in the process of arranging the foundation, as well as when working with the ceiling surface.
Polyurethane compounds, in addition to insulating walls, do an excellent job of sealing various cracks on them. In addition, voids are filled with polyurethane foam during the installation of window blocks and pipes. With the help of this material, basement and attic insulation is carried out. Two-component foam is purchased for treating the walls of frame-type houses.
You can buy foam for insulation in any building supermarket or on the market. On the shelves there are products presented by domestic and foreign manufacturers.
Among the assortment, some of the most demanded trade marks should be highlighted
- Makroflex. The foam has excellent adhesion and a homogeneous structure. But due to the fact that this brand is far from new in the construction market and enjoys a well-deserved popularity due to the high quality of the compositions, fakes are often found on sale.
- "Moment Montage". The composition has a rather dense structure. A completely cured surface lends itself well to painting.
- Soudal. The products are notable for their lack of odor. In addition, the foam does not contain toxic substances, so it can be classified as “eco”. However, the polymerized composition needs mandatory protection from ultraviolet radiation.
- Penosil. Has a small rate of secondary expansion, but there are limitations in the scope: such a foam is not recommended for treating walls outside
Titan. The composition has a good density, the foam does not shrink
Recommendations for use
For a simple layman, many professional techniques related to working with foam for insulating bases on an industrial or smaller scale may be unknown. However, there are a number of mandatory rules regarding the performance of work in this profile.
Recommendations of a general nature should be highlighted:
- products should be bought only in specialized departments in the amount required for insulation, since the same material should be used during the work;
- since foam has inherent surface sealing properties, a good level of ventilation should be ensured in advance during the processing of internal substrates;
- to work with the substance, it is worth purchasing all the necessary personal protective equipment;
- before starting processing, it is better to test the material for the level of increase in volume.
When working with finished walls, special holes are made in the material for the hose of the apparatus, through which the space is filled. The foam is injected from the bottom up. At the end of the work, the holes must be repaired in order to exclude the release of the composition through them. After applying 30 cm of foam it is necessary to check the expansion level of the substance. If there is not enough material, more foam is introduced into the cavity.
At the end of the work, you must wait until the material has completely solidified. During this process, ventilation in the room is a very important point - fresh air must constantly circulate inside.
When further finishing does not imply attachment from above to the composition of any additional material, plaster can be applied to the leveled foam surface. The resulting base will be quite strong, so the use of materials from above is not necessary.
Foam for thermal insulation is not the cheapest option for surface treatment, however, the reliability and quality of the formed insulation layer justifies the investment.
In the next video, you will see how to insulate the wall yourself with foam using a homemade device.