The porch is an important addition to any private home. It is necessary not only for the harmonious design of the exterior, but also has a certain functional purpose. In winter, it serves as protection from snow, and in summer, with the right choice of design, it becomes a shelter from the rain and a wonderful resting place.
Features of the
The best option for a private or country house is a porch with a wooden canopy. Such buildings have a number of advantages:
- ease of processing of the material, which will allow you to create porch details of any shape - from simple to intricate;
- a variety of design solutions for the design of wooden structures;
- natural beauty of the material, which does not require additional work on the cladding or cladding of the structure;
- lightness of the structure, which does not require a reinforced foundation structure.
Problems in the form of mildew, mold, cracks or abrasion can be easily eliminated by treating the wood with special products.
What could be a porch?
When thinking about building a porch for a private house or summer cottage, you first need to determine what its appearance will be. There are several of the most common design options.
Open porch… This design assumes the presence of a canopy, light side rails and railings. The number of steps may vary depending on the height at which the entrance to the house is located.
Closed porch. This design presupposes the presence of side protection in the form of light walls that extend to the canopy. Protection is most often made of wood, polycarbonate sheets or by glazing
Terrace… Combines the functions of a porch and a seating area for hosts and guests. It is an extension to the house, which is protected by a roof, complemented by fences and a small staircase. The main difference between the terrace and the porch is the large area that allows you to place garden furniture, flowerpots and other decorative elements
There are no established standards for porch construction. Here it will be reasonable to proceed from the dimensions of the house, the desired design, as well as the preferences of the owner. However, in order to avoid mistakes during construction, it is still recommended to develop a sketch or drawing indicating the dimensions and features of the product. You can do this yourself or resort to the services of a specialist. The drawing should contain a number of necessary characteristics of the future product.
- The general idea of the appearance of the porch is the result that needs to be obtained as a result of the work done.
- Product width. As practice shows, this indicator should at least be equal to the width of the door opening, multiplied by a factor of 1.5. The indicator was not chosen by chance: this width will allow you to freely open the door while standing on the site.
- The length of the tread board. It must be at least 70 cm, otherwise movement on it with any objects will be difficult.
- The height mark at which the platform of the future porch will be located. It should be approximately 5 cm below the threshold. This will ensure unhindered door opening in winter, even in case of snow drifts, as well as when wood swells under the influence of moisture.
The angle of inclination of the steps. In order to avoid cases of accumulation of water on them, it is necessary to observe a slope of 1-3 degrees during installation in the direction opposite to the house.
- Foundation characteristics.The type, material of manufacture, the depth at which the foundation lies in the soil are indicated.
- The number and size of steps. The optimal height of the steps is 17-20 cm, the depth is 35-40 cm.
- Fence parameters. Its type, height, material from which it will be made are indicated.
Tools and materials
The list of tools and materials may vary depending on the features of a particular model. However, there are certain recommendations regarding the used devices and raw materials.
When building a porch you will need:
timber for the manufacture of racks;
- boards with a thickness of at least 30 mm for deck flooring and steps;
- blanks of balusters and railings or materials for their own production;
- varnish, paint or protective impregnation for wood;
- sand, pebbles and cement for the preparation of concrete.
The list of required tools includes:
- an electric saw or a hacksaw for wood;
- electric jigsaw;
- a ruler with a corner;
- self-tapping screws;
- fasteners (corners, brackets and others).
How to do it yourself?
To build a porch, you do not need to have the professional skills of a builder or carpenter.
It is enough to perform the operations sequentially and scrupulously, trying to avoid errors in measurements and installation.
Porch made of wood - a fairly light structure, therefore it does not require the arrangement of a complex strip foundation. If in the construction process kosoura are used (load-bearing elements for fixing the steps), a foundation using piles will be sufficient. When making such a foundation, it is better to use coniferous wood. It is least susceptible to rotting. To prevent the formation of fungus, it is necessary to treat the bars with an antiseptic or drying oil.
When installing piles, the following sequence must be observed:
- prepare pits, the depth of which should be about a third of the length of the supports;
- immerse the supports in the pits, tracking the level vertically;
- roughly divide the depth of the pit into three parts and fill in the sequence - crushed stone-soil-cement mortar;
- when the concrete dries, it is necessary to correct the elevation differences, if necessary;
- cut out grooves on the supports for attaching the lag spikes;
- fix the log from the bar to the piles according to the thorn-groove system;
- check the level of the structure.
The extreme supports should be fixed to the wall of the house with hardware, screws or nails to provide additional structural strength.
The staircase installation process includes several stages:
- mark and install stringers for attaching treads and risers;
- since the foundation assumes the presence of support lags, cut thorns on the stringers;
- install a board with grooves in the support platform lag;
- connect the stringers and the platform lag according to the thorn-groove system;
- strengthen the resulting structure with wooden staples;
- fix the treads and risers in the kosoura according to the thorn-groove principle;
- fasten the structure of the steps with steel corners.
When the number of steps on the porch is more than three, a railing is a smart solution. It is logical to do this at the final stage after the construction of the upper platform.
Creation of the top landing
If the porch provides for the construction of a canopy, a logical solution would be to build an area of such a size that it can accommodate several people. This will allow you to set up a resting bench there.
When building the upper platform, boards with a thickness of 25 mm or more are chosen. One end is attached to the wall or log, the other to the stringers. For fastening, use the thorn-groove technology or self-tapping screws. It is important to consider that the level of the platform should be located below the level of the threshold to prevent the doors from blocking if the flooring gets wet under the influence of moisture. The boards are placed tightly one behind the other.
Then proceed to the installation of balusters and railings. There are various options for ready-made parts on sale, but you can also make them yourself from a bar.
Building a canopy
The main elements of the canopy are the frame and the roof. There are two structurally different canopy options:
- support, which involve the construction of supports for the roof;
- suspended, which, due to their small size and low weight, are fixed on the outer wall of the house.
When choosing a canopy option, special attention should be paid to how heavy the snow load on the visor is.
If the winter in the region is always snowy, it would be wiser to give preference to a support shed.
The frame of the canopy and the roof of the wooden porch is made of bars according to the following technology:
- load-bearing beams are attached to the staircase with anchors;
the roof frame of the planned shape is built on top of the bearing pillars;
- a roof lathing made of bars or slats is installed, located at a frequency of at least 30 cm;
- roofing material made of profiled sheet, metal tile or polycarbonate is mounted on top of the lathing.
At the final stage, the porch can be varnished, stained or painted, or decorated with beautiful carvings and platbands - it all depends on the taste and preferences of the owner. The main thing is not to forget about caring for the building: treat it with an antiseptic against decay, replace fasteners if necessary, paint when required… If you follow these recommendations, the porch will decorate the house for many years.
Watch the video on how to make a wooden porch with your own hands.