A bath is an indispensable attribute of your own home. Bathrooms can be entered only through the porch, which sometimes serves as a decorative function. In addition, a terrace for relaxation is very often beautifully arranged on the porch.
Features of the
The bathhouse is most often built of wood, in most cases it is a small building. It has a specific purpose, therefore it is installed on a small plinth, the minimum height of which is 30-50 cm. Then the porch is arranged in only 2-3 steps. No railings are installed on the stairs. The total area of the porch must be of sufficient size to allow the entrance door to open normally.
During operation, the bath is subjected to a high humidity test. The porch for the bath must be built from natural materials that normally react to biological and chemical influences, as well as withstand mechanical stress.
The most suitable materials for the bathhouse and porch can be wooden beams and boards, cement mortar and bricks. This design is easy to do with your own hands.
A large porch can be built in two versions
- On the same foundation with a bathhouse under a common roof. A single project is being prepared, a common strip foundation is being laid. In this case, even a low porch is limited by a railing.
- The structure of the bath is carried out separately, and then the porch is completed on a different foundation. Such designs differ in size. Both the visor and the terrace are mounted separately according to the size of the bath.
Depending on the size, purpose and degree of security, the porch can be either open or closed.
The open porch has no serious shelter from rain or snow, and a small visor is arranged above its steps. Such structures with a canopy are installed more often on bath buildings, which are used only in the warm season.
The positive side of installing an open porch with a visor is its minimal cost and the ability to do the work with your own hands.
A closed porch can have various options
Closed vestibule that keeps warmth in the room. Designed simultaneously with the bathhouse, it is often performed under one roof with the entire structure. At the same time, the roof of the vestibule often looks like a continuation of the bath overlap. If the vestibule has more modest dimensions, then the vestibule overlap is performed separately. It should be borne in mind that the doors of the vestibule and the bath itself open freely, the distance between them should be at least 1.2 meters
Sometimes a closed porch is attached along the entire length of the bathhouse with a terrace where you can sit and cool off after the steam room. The extension of the terrace on the front side of the bath is done on a separate foundation (the simplest version is with a pitched roof)
The third option may be a closed veranda attached to a part of the bath or to its entire length. It is an extension that protects well from rain, wind and snow. Installed on the same level with the structure of the bath or with a slight decrease
The most common material for a bath is wood. More often it is a timber, sometimes - a round timber.
To build an open small porch for a small bathhouse in the country, you can use one of the options:
- wooden beams and boards;
- cement mortar and brick;
- a combination of concrete and wood.
A more massive structure, along the entire width of the facade, is carried out with a foundation of different materials.
It could be a porch:
- from logs and boards (assembled separately, and then installed in place);
- from timber and boards;
- from bricks and cement mortar (made directly on site);
- a combination of wood, mortar and brick;
- very rarely - made of metal (in this case, a structure completely finished by welding is installed in front of the entrance to the bath.
The most budgetary and easy-to-process material is wood. This lightweight, environmentally friendly, very easy-to-process material is widely used in DIY construction. Working with cement or metal requires certain knowledge and skills. Before you start working with them, you need to get at least some training. Working with metal fragments requires specialist intervention. Only a professional can make independently forged railing gratings, as well as install them.
How to do it?
First of all, you need to decide what type of porch the bathhouse will be, and also choose the material for it. Then design drawings of the facility should be made, noting the exact dimensions of the structure. Most likely, such a question is solved even when designing the construction of the bath itself, but it happens that the owners either begin to deal with it a little later, or they have a desire to somehow change the existing porch (for example, make it more spacious, of a different type, from a different material). The creation of a project for any execution is the most important stage.
It is easier to build a small porch in a wooden bathhouse in the country, a barrel bath or a small building made of stone and foam concrete in a modest city courtyard. On a solid plot, you can attach a veranda or terrace for the rest of the whole family or a group of friends.
Doing it yourself requires certain knowledge, some of which are given below
- The angle of inclination of the flight of stairs can vary from 27 degrees to the maximum possible for this structure - 45 degrees. A smaller angle may be present, while a larger one will be unsafe and rather difficult for older people to climb and descend.
- The most convenient for a person is the step height from 15 to 20 cm, the best option is 17-18 cm.
- The width (depth) of the step varies between 25-32 cm, but it can still be recommended to opt for 30 cm.
- The passage width of the staircase should be comfortable for the movement of one person - at least 90 cm (optimal - 110 cm).
- When calculating the number of steps, it is necessary to take into account that the door shrinks, therefore, it is necessary to subtract 3-4 cm from the total porch height so that the door does not touch the upper platform in case of subsidence of the door leaf.
Having correctly performed the calculations, as well as adhering to the project when installing the building, you can get a great place to relax or a short break after a hot steam room.
Laying the foundation is the second step in building a large add-on porch or veranda. It can be one of several existing types. Let's briefly describe them.
- Tape. Used on stable soils. Withstands high loads. The budgetary and simplest option for laying: a reinforced frame is laid in a trench dug along the perimeter of the structure, and then everything is poured with concrete.
- Columnar. Installed in areas where there is soil freezing. The pits for the pillars deepen just below the freezing level of the soil.
- Pile. It is used in places where the water table is high. A very expensive type of foundation that requires the use of special equipment, therefore, it is rarely found in home construction.
The strip foundation withstands heavy loads, suitable for the construction of stone, brick and concrete buildings.In this case, a trench is dug around the perimeter of the extension, the depth of which should be selected according to the indicators of soil freezing. A layer of crushed stone is poured into it, and then sand (each layer is up to 20 cm thick), everything is carefully compacted.
A wooden crate is placed on a sand-gravel cushion, a reinforced frame is laid inside and poured with concrete
Subsequent work on such a foundation can only be carried out after 28 days.
To fill the columnar foundation, holes are dug or drilled to the appropriate depth along the entire perimeter of the future extension. The distance between the two posts should not exceed 2 m. Layers of crushed stone and sand 20-25 cm thick each are also poured into the bottom of the pit, and then compacted and closed with waterproofing (two-layer roofing material, a special hydro-barrier or a layer of liquid bitumen). The posts can be installed ready-made, or they can be poured directly into the pits, having previously installed frames made of thick knitting wire and reinforcement. The columns are fixed with transverse reinforcement layers.
The entire frame is wrapped in a layer of roofing material and installed in the pit. Next, the vertical level of the column is checked and poured with concrete. After 10 days, when the columns should harden well, the pits are covered with earth. The height of the columnar foundation above the ground should not exceed 50 cm.
Assembling the porch on a strip foundation is possible in two ways.
The first way
Pour the porch with cement mortar, having previously installed a wooden formwork, inside which a frame made of reinforcement is installed. The foundation is closed with a waterproofing gasket (roofing material, a layer of liquid bitumen). The porch frame is mounted directly on the foundation.
A combined option is possible, when a wooden porch from a bar and boards (or from a bar and logs sawn in half) is installed to the strip foundation of the veranda.
To do this, it is necessary to install the 2 longest logs at an angle of 90 degrees to the foundation, which will serve as stringers
Shorter ones should be laid on them in turn. As a result, two log walls are obtained, located at a distance of about 80 cm from each other, equally rising in steps to the foundation. Board steps are mounted on them.
In order for the wood from which the steps are made to last longer, it is better to use hard woods. To guarantee long-term operation, it is necessary to impregnate the tree with an antiseptic that protects against fungal rot, and then treat it with a protective compound and varnish.
Mount the porch on a columnar foundation, having previously assembled a wooden or metal frame on the ground. The frame is attached using prepared fasteners. Jumpers are mounted inside the wooden rectangle every 70-80 cm. After fixing the frame to the foundation, the floor is sewn up with a terrace board, and then the porch assembly begins:
- the stringers are put in place, the fasteners are not tightened to the end;
- the level checks the correctness of the installation of the stringers, after which the fasteners are clamped all the way;
- the first is the riser of the lower step, then the tread and so on to the very top.
After the assembly is completed, the wooden parts are treated with an antiseptic and a primer, followed by painting.