Paving slabs as cladding for stairs or porches, contrary to popular belief, are absolutely safe and also look impressive. But for this, it must be correctly selected for the type of surface and equipped with special overlays. This finish has some features that you need to be aware of when choosing tiles for outdoor steps.
Features of the
Even by the name of this finishing material, it becomes clear that it is mainly intended for the arrangement of road surfaces - city sidewalks, paths in squares, parks, on the garden plots of private houses. However, this does not exhaust the scope of its application.
Modern paving tiles are also actively used in the creation of sites and streets, they look much better than asphalt, and even stairs are faced with it in country buildings
Therefore, a porch made of paving slabs is no longer a rarity, if desired and with minimal skills, you can build it with your own hands.
Despite the fact that paving slabs have some of the properties of ordinary ceramic tiles for interior decoration, they have special characteristics:
- such products are more practical, as they have high wear resistance;
- they are not subject to abrasion for a long time;
- resistant to low temperatures, which makes it possible to use the material in outdoor conditions;
- strength is the most important indicator of paving tiles, which is why it is applicable for high traffic, and, accordingly, under significant loads.
One of the parameters necessary for the safe operation of such coatings is the absence of a slippery surface, and it must be adhered to when choosing this building material for facing the porch and street stairs.
We add that the assortment of sidewalk tiles is wide enough, and this allows you to choose any color scheme, material, pattern or individual fragments of all kinds of shapes, which are laid in the form of a mosaic canvas.
As you can see, the tiled material has enough advantages for streets, but it is worth remembering its disadvantages. First of all, it is the presence of concrete in the composition of the tiles.
As you know, this building mixture is characterized by high porosity, and although the boards are pressed during the manufacturing process, this property is not completely eliminated.
For this reason, with temperature changes, especially when changing seasons, air bubbles in the structure of the building material gradually destroy it, creating unwanted stress … The result is the formation of cracks and chips. But this process can last for a long time, and the paving slab can be used fearlessly for 6-8 years.
To some, this may seem like a short time, but it should be borne in mind that the cost of such a tile is quite comparable to its technical characteristics, and if you need a more durable material, it is better to choose a natural stone. True, the price for it is much higher.
Let us also recall the peculiarities of the work associated with the laying of paving slabs. It should be understood that the initial level of the base will rise significantly if the material is laid on an adhesive solution having a certain thickness.
The types of tiles for outdoor use differ in the type of installation, shape and size. However, the main classification is related to the material from which the product is made.
In a private house, it is possible to arrange a porch of different types
Natural stone is expensive slabswith small grain size, high density and uniformity of the structure, in contrast to the inhomogeneity of the pattern and color, which is typical for natural minerals. These are marble, limestone, pebbles, granite and sandstone, as well as stone chips. A staircase, porch, steps are made of such slabs. The owners of country houses use them for tiling the floor in the hallway and in the kitchen. Natural stone up to 4 cm thick can be used to create garden paths, parking areas
The ceramic type of paving slabs is the most popular. The purchase of such a material is justified only with its high quality - cheap options do not have sufficient strength and durability. The coating is available in a large assortment, it can withstand high mechanical loads and is aesthetically pleasing in appearance. These products have good frost resistance. Thanks to the various shapes, even a round porch can be tiled with ceramics, and to increase the anti-slip effect, the material is equipped with polyurethane or rubber pads
For paving the porch and steps on the street, porcelain stoneware is often used. This is an artificially created material, but it is strong, reliable, durable and has a good density. Porcelain stoneware slabs are produced in any color palette, with different textures, including natural stone
Rubber crumb tiles are a special type of paving products. It is an innovative material with high performance, which includes crumb rubber, special modifiers, dyes and polymer glue. Advantages - low slip, sound absorption, long service life. The cover is comfortable to use as it is soft and elastic. By the way, flexibility is at the same time a disadvantage of the material, since it is prone to displacement
Artificial stone is a budget option for tiles made from clinker mortar. It is a wear-resistant material, resistant to external influences, varied in color, shape and size. In addition, it is easy to install
Conventional paving slabs are made from crushed stone, concrete and sand with the addition of water, this is a classic type of paving product. Its other name is concrete paving stones. This is the most durable type of cladding for outdoor applications
Porch steps in a country house using paving slabs can be attached using a special adhesive base, but also on the metal frame of the stairs. It depends on the design of the porch, its size, the chosen material. It is better to stick the tiles on the concrete base, but since the steps are mainly created by means of metal corners, the slabs are easier to lay in the frame they form.
How to make
If the facade of the house is made of natural or artificial stone, then paving slabs will come in handy for decorating the porch. For the arrangement, it is not necessary to invite professionals - all the work can be done with your own hands, using the usual tiles left after creating the garden paths.
Let's figure out how the facing of the steps with paving slabs is carried out. There are several mounting options:
- the finish is mounted on a concrete base, this is important when it is planned to create wide steps;
- if a staircase with high narrow spans is conceived, a metal base is erected;
- the third option is the creation of a gravel-sand cushion, on which the tile material will subsequently be laid.
The classic concrete installation scheme includes the following steps:
- marking the area at the front door according to the staircase drawings;
- installation of a metal frame in a dug hole;
- production of formwork for steps, due to which the foundation is fixed;
- pouring concrete mixture and dismantling the wooden structure after it dries (from 3 to 8 days, depending on the season);
- cleaning concrete from dust before laying tiles and processing with an acrylic compound;
- the tiles are laid from top to bottom, if necessary, they must be cut off before being planted on the glue base.
The end part of the product should protrude above the riser by a distance of up to 1 cm (in the thickness of the glue) and by the thickness of the tile itself. Then it is necessary to grout the joints with an acrylic-based primer, mixing it with sand.
Without the use of glue, you can lay the sidewalk covering directly on the sand cushion, but this will require making each tread, and equip the foundation under the wall parapets and stairs.
If there are a small number of steps on the parapets, stone curbs should be laid out with cement mortar fixation. Professional builders often fix a concrete foundation with an additional metal frame, and place geotextiles under a sand and gravel pillow. Each tread is filled with sand, moistened and leveled, and then they are lined with slabs.
This is a lengthy process, so many resort to a simple finishing method and erect metal-based steps. The foundation and kosoura are made in advance, while the porch platform and steps are supported - racks made of reinforcement and metal corners. The lower part is poured with concrete, at the same time the anchor fasteners are laid in it. According to the dimensions of the tile product, a steel frame is made in the shape of a rectangle.
It is important to treat the metal with an anti-corrosion agent before installing the tiles and secure the entire structure as much as possible, additionally welding the bottom with iron. The finished coating after facing is also fixed with a corner to avoid chipping during operation.
Watch the video on how to lay out the porch with paving slabs.