To most people, the toilet seems to be the simplest device. Water is filled into its tank, which, when a button is pressed, is drained into the bowl through a special hole, followed by going into the sewer. And only those who have looked under the tank lid at least once understand that the toilet is not quite simple plumbing equipment. There are many mechanisms in its design, each of which is responsible for a separate stage of the device's operation. But the most unpleasant thing is that any of these mechanisms, after a certain period of operation, can fail. However, most often problems arise in the float system.
What it is?
Today it is impossible to surprise someone with a futuristic toilet installation. Modern models of this plumbing device are primarily aimed at creating the beauty of the restroom. And only in second place are performance characteristics considered.
Toilets of the modern type have received the usual shapes and sizes, having gone a long way of transformation. For this reason, people far from working with plumbing equipment are sure that there is a significant difference between current models and samples from the past. In principle, this is so. Modern toilets are developed in an updated design, and their design solutions allow you to hide the cistern in a wall niche. However, the internal stuffing of the device has not changed.
Only some elements of the mechanisms themselves have changed, but the principle of their operation has not changed. And first of all it concerns the float.
A float is a device that allows you to adjust the water level in the tank. Much depends on this element of plumbing equipment. The design of the float mechanism has a valve equipped with a membrane, which closes the drain when the water reaches the desired level.
In the recent past, toilets were equipped with ball-type floats. But this modification did not show itself from the effective side. The device filled up very quickly, which forced the mechanism to work to its limit. For this reason, the ball-shaped float failed ahead of schedule. Modern toilet bowls are equipped with cup-shaped floats. They have proven themselves only from the best side, as they sustainably tolerate the filling of the container.
Overview of varieties
As mentioned earlier, over the past several decades, toilet bowls have gone through several stages of transformation. The tanks can now be installed directly under the ceiling, recessed into the box. And what is most interesting, such a decent distance between the toilet bowl and the cistern does not in any way affect the principle of operation of the plumbing device. When the button is pressed, the water is drained instantly. Today, such structures are installed in houses, apartments and business centers, since they can significantly save space in the toilet room.
Remarkably, modern cisterns, despite their location in the restroom, have a side connection. The only difference is in the point of connection of the water supply hose.
Previously, the toilet tank was filled through the upper connection, but today it happens from the lower level.
Internal work processes have remained the same.When the tank is filled with water, the float mechanism is triggered, which rises from the increasing volume of liquid, simultaneously sealing the drain valve.
Yes, there is a wide variety of toilets in stores today. Each model differs in multiple parameters, capabilities, characteristics. Despite this, there are only 2 types of floats used in tanks:
Long pull balls
The ball float system has been in use for many decades. It was developed during the creation of the first Soviet flush cisterns. In the role of a water supply regulator, a float with an extended draft was used, which passed along the entire width of the tank. The liquid was supplied through a side supply system. The concept of "spherical shape of the float" was conditional. Depending on the modification of the toilet bowl, the floats were in the form of a sphere, an oval, and even a cube.
Today, a long-thrust float ball is rarely used. It is installed exclusively in semi-antique designer toilets. However, they can also be found in public places. Of course, no one will look under the lid of the toilet cistern in an outdoor toilet, but a ball-shaped float is probably installed there.
Such designs are the cheapest on the market, despite the fact that they have long lost their relevance.
Spherical floats on an elongated thrust had and still have several advantages:
- ease of installation;
- easy adjustment of the float system;
- low cost of restoration;
- low price for all related components.
But, like other mechanisms, long-thrust ball floats have several disadvantages. First of all, they are not suitable for installation in modern compact cisterns. But if, nevertheless, it was possible to place a spherical float in the tank, then in the process of draining it makes a very loud noise. This mechanism often fails during operation.
Modern toilets are equipped with glass-shaped floats. They do not have an elongated rod, and the float is made in the form of a cylinder moving in a vertical direction with simultaneous valve adjustment. The advantages of this float system are represented by an impressive list:
- small dimensions;
- the speed and accuracy of draining;
- lack of sound of the working process;
- wide variety of model range.
Glass-shaped floats contribute to the rational use of water, as there are several buttons in their system. The first is responsible for complete drainage, and the second for partial flushing. The disadvantage of such structures is the complexity of the installation. Often, plumbers have to completely remove the tank to install such a miniature but highly effective fluid control system. What is noteworthy is that high-quality glass-shaped floats have a long warranty period, thanks to which the owner of the plumbing equipment does not have to worry about the failure of the mechanism.
When buying new plumbing equipment, each person must call a master. After all, the installation of a simple design requires special knowledge and skills. Calling a highly qualified specialist is also carried out if the toilet bowl or some of its parts is out of order. In principle, you can cope with the problem and repair the mechanism yourself. The main thing is to understand the design of the tank, the filling and draining system.
According to plumbers, the simplest work in installing or repairing a toilet is to dismantle and install a ball-shaped float with an elongated rod. But first you need to understand the problem, or rather, determine which part is to be replaced.Today, at points of sale of sanitary equipment, a wide variety of spherical plastic floats are presented, either individually or assembled, where the float itself, the rod and the valve are present.
Experts recommend changing this mechanism entirely, especially since its cost will not affect the wallet in any way.
Well, now it is proposed to consider the algorithm of actions:
- it is necessary to close the water supply valve;
- completely empty the tank;
- the hose is disconnected;
- the old valve and float are removed;
- the seat is being cleaned, a new mechanism is being installed.
The last stage of work involves connecting the water supply hose and test draining the fluid. After the test operation, you need to see how the new mechanism works, check the attachment points of the tank and the joints of the fluid regulator. If no water leaks, all that remains is to adjust the valve. This completes the installation of a ball-shaped float with an extended thrust.
But the installation of a glass float is characterized by high complexity. The reason for this is the need to remove the toilet cistern. It should be noted that this work must be treated extremely scrupulously. If the float mechanism is installed incorrectly, it is highly likely that after connecting the tank to the toilet bowl, drainage defects may occur, which can be eliminated by the next removal of the upper part of the toilet bowl.
Masters recommend changing the valve and the drain system when replacing the glass-shaped float mechanism. On the one hand, this approach is very correct, for a long time the owner of the toilet will not have to deal with replacing individual parts of the internal mechanism.
On the other hand, such repairs are not cheap.
The work on replacing and installing a glass float is as follows
- It is necessary to check the availability of components.
- It is required to turn off the water supply valve, drain the liquid from the tank and dismantle it.
- The damaged mechanism is dismantled, a new one is installed, with mandatory alignment along the axis of the container. The nut is clamped on the adjacent side.
- A filling valve with a float is being installed. It must stand upright, without touching the elements of the drainage system.
- The cistern is assembled, after which it is attached over the toilet bowl.
When working with the parts of the mechanism of the glass-shaped float, special care must be taken. Many elements are made of plastic and can burst with great force.
After the new float mechanism has been installed, it must be adjusted. This procedure is carried out in a certain order of actions, which in no case should be violated. First of all, you need to make sure that the moving parts of the valves are at a certain distance from each other. The fittings themselves should not touch the walls of the tank, otherwise the mechanism will not function properly. The water supply to the toilet tank should be stopped when the distance between the liquid level and the extreme part of the overflow sensor is 15 cm. If this dimension is greater or less than the required standard, it is necessary to adjust the float.
First you need to make sure that the mechanism has no distortions. If there are any, it is necessary to correct the situation. The skewed part of the float structure can be tilted or bent.
The overflow tube itself is adjusted by first loosening the clamps and disconnecting the traction.
The last indicated action is considered only on some models of toilet bowls. In the rest, it is enough to unscrew the nut. In the process of moving the main element above or below the specified mark, an increase or decrease in the volume of water taken into the tank occurs.Some tanks have a special strip, which you can navigate by measuring out the optimal value. If you keep the level, the toilet guarantees an effective flush.
It is extremely rare, but still plumbers met structures where the overflow element was located on the inlet fittings. However, even with this design scheme, the setting does not change. The filling tube itself may be longer. Accordingly, the result will be excessive splashing of water during the filling of the container. To fix this problem, the usual trimming of a small piece of the same tube will allow.
If the float valve does not shut off the water, then some mistakes were made during the installation process. The reason may be a nut that is not fully tightened or a poor-quality gasket. It is much more difficult to adjust the float mechanism in toilets with two buttons than with one.
Not everyone can cope with this work on their own, it is recommended to invite a master. He will be able to correctly adjust the full drainage of water and adjust the partial operation of the flush system.
Some people argue that the reason for the failure of the float mechanism is the equipping of the tank with a bottom inlet. But this is not the case. Any system from time to time dries up, fails and breaks down altogether. The inner filling of the toilet cistern is no exception. And yet it is worth noting that the better the mechanism is, the longer it will serve its owners. Good floats serve for several decades, and low-quality mechanisms may become unusable within a year after installation.