Living outside the city is a real luxury these days. Perhaps every family dreams of having their own house somewhere in nature. If you are seriously thinking about building a summer house or cottage, here are some tips for you on how to start implementing your plan.
Projects of one-story houses
Before you start preparing for construction, you need to decide on the desired goal. The technologies and solutions used in the construction differ for summer cottages and year-round cottages. A country house can be both a place for solitude from the hustle and bustle of gardening, outdoor recreation, and a full-fledged family hearth for a calm and measured life.
Next, you should calculate the required area of the future house, residential and useful. All subsequent decisions to be taken before starting work depend on the choice of size - from the foundation to the roof.
The most popular projects are considered to be houses of 6 by 9 meters in terms of the economy of maintenance and the cost of construction.
Types of foundations
It is a solid reinforced concrete slab. It can become the basis for a building of any complexity and number of storeys. High strength and compensation of ground vibrations allows the use of the monolith even in areas with seismic activity or weak soil. According to the installation technology, monolithic foundations are strip and floating.
In the first case, the reinforced concrete tape passes only under the load-bearing walls, in the second, the reinforcement joints are made flexible, not welded, which makes it possible to erect buildings on swampy soils. Of the minuses of monolithic foundations, the high cost of work is distinguished, moreover, for them it is necessary to attract heavy equipment.
Individual elements are connected using reinforcement and concrete screed. Does not require deepening, and therefore is often used in areas with high groundwater levels. Able to withstand quite strong soil vibrations without damage to the building, it is suitable for the construction of even multi-storey buildings. Due to the significant transportation costs of heavy slabs, it is the most expensive type of foundation.
The most versatile of all, such a foundation can be used on all types of soil, except for rocky ones. The reinforced concrete frame is supported by piles that can be buried at any distance. Due to this technology, it allows you to smooth out uneven terrain. Driven and screw piles are distinguished by the type of installation.
The choice of a specific solution depends on the type of soil and the depth of freezing in your area.
The most budgetary and simplest type. Support pillars are installed along the perimeter of the structure in places of the highest load: at the joints of the walls, at the corners. However, on soft soils, there is a high risk of overturning the poles. The same applies to areas with horizontally moving sections.
Before choosing a foundation, consider whether you need a basement floor. The basement solves the problem with the garage, it can be used as a warehouse, laundry or a full-fledged room with proper insulation and decoration. And also the choice of wall material affects the final version of the base of your house - primarily due to the weight of the structure.
Houses from foam blocks
The blocks are made from a mixture of cement, sand and a special foaming agent. The output is a cellular and lightweight material that almost does not conduct heat and does not absorb moisture. The foam block is non-flammable, easy to install and therefore very popular in the construction of houses. However, its shrinkage is quite large, so the geometry of the house can change over time.
This is an inexpensive and easy-to-manufacture material, so there is a high risk of stumbling upon handicraft foam blocks, which will inevitably lead to cracks and irregularities in the walls. The final estimate is also influenced by the need to reinforce the interfloor belt.
Aerated concrete houses
This is an improved version of the previous material. Aluminum powder is introduced into a mixture of lime, sand and water, as a result of a chemical reaction, hydrogen is released, which gives the aerated concrete a porous structure. After the base is ready, future blocks are sent for pressure firing. Such manipulations are possible only in large factories, so there is practically no risk of buying low-quality material. Deviations in block sizes are minimal, which speeds up installation.
The strength of gas silicate blocks is higher than that of foam concrete blocks, therefore, reinforcement is not necessary.
Durable and solid buildings. More than one generation can live in such a house. The brick is frost-resistant, environmentally friendly, it does not burn or deform. However, the construction of such a building will cost a lot of money and take a lot of time. In addition, the weight of the structure will be very large, and not every foundation will support it. In some regions, it is forbidden to build brick houses due to the weak flowing soil.
Houses made of SIP panels
The structural insulated panel is a polystyrene foam layer enclosed in an OSB board frame. All three layers are reliably glued together under tremendous pressure, which eliminates delamination over time. Expanded polystyrene takes over the sound and heat insulation, and the oriented strand board increases the bearing capacity of the walls. The vertical load on SIP panels can be up to 10 tons. Such panel houses are built in a matter of months, but the disadvantage will be the fire hazard, because the material is combustible.
Wooden houses from a bar
The timber has a square section, which facilitates the construction process. And also there are solid and glued beams. The second is much stronger, because it is created from several boards glued together under pressure. Such timber does not require drying, does not allow shrinkage and does not crack. In addition, houses made of profiled timber look authentic and attractive, which allows you to save on external finishing.
Wooden houses from logs
A log house looks monumental and expensive. Real masterpieces in the Russian or Finnish style are created from the rounded logs, due to the round section, an unusual pattern of the walls is obtained. These houses are very warm and inexpensive, but it is worth remembering that the drying and shrinking times are much higher compared to timber. And also there is a high probability of cracking in the process. You can combine different materials when building additional outbuildings.
For example, a house can be made of aerated concrete with a wooden deck. For one-story construction, any of the methods described will work. From the point of view of thermal insulation and comfort, pay attention to the plans of houses measuring 6x9 m. The total area of such a structure will be about 100 square meters, this must be indicated on the diagram.
If you don't think there is enough space, then take a look at the one and a half-story options. This means that the height of the outer walls is slightly higher than the standard for the first floor, but does not reach the two-story indicators. Most often, this effect is achieved by combining the attic and the second, additional floor. Sometimes one and a half floors are used as an additional light source. In this case, there are no ceilings, and you can increase the usable area due to the internal balcony.
Or, you can remove the ceiling not on the entire surface of the attic, but only on one part of it. Such cottages look just magical, but you have to think about additional roof insulation, because warm air will rise and accumulate upstairs without lingering in the room.
To heat one and a half floors, you need a modern system, for example, a gas or electric boiler.
And also to increase the area of the house 6 by 9 meters, you can lay in the plan a spacious loggia. You can act with a balcony as with a summer area for relaxation, or you can glaze it and turn it into an extension of the room. Before ordering a drawing of a dream house, you need to think about the shape of the roof. In addition to the fact that the choice radically changes the appearance of the building, there are also financial and functional aspects. When choosing a roof design, decide in advance the issue with the stove, because then you will have to lay a chimney in the project. The pitched roof can have one or two slopes. An air gap between the ceiling and the roof itself improves thermal insulation.
The angle can be any, if desired, due to the pitched roof, you will be able to increase the area of \ u200b \ u200bthe housing. With a lean-to roof, the house will acquire interesting outlines, and the resulting space you can use as an attic or winter garden. However, in construction, such roofs are more expensive, since installation is more difficult. A flat roof also increases usable space - but not living space. But on a flat surface, you can set up a garden or put up a gazebo, use it as a place to relax, and even install a pool. With a flat roof, it is easier to maintain and repair. However, you will have to constantly monitor the tightness of the coating in order to prevent leaks.
Ideas for placing rooms in two-story houses
Classic cottages have the following arrangement of rooms: a large living room, often combined with a kitchen, on the first floor, and one or two bedrooms on the second. However, when you think about building your own home from scratch, you can add to the project any wishes that the architect will allow for security and ventilation reasons. When building a plan, not only living rooms are taken into account, but also various auxiliary utility rooms: storage rooms, dressing rooms. The most popular option is the location of the bathrooms, kitchen, hallway and living room on the first floor, and places for relaxation and bedrooms on the second. Consider an additional upstairs toilet if you plan to have living rooms there.
The design and choice of materials also impose some restrictions, but also open up possibilities for design. For example, a log house looks so unusual that additional partitions and finishing may not be needed. Many log home owners strive to preserve the unique texture of the walls and organize one large space on the ground floor that contains both the living room, kitchen and dining area.
In houses from aerated concrete blocks, the internal architecture can be any. When designing, do not forget to isolate the bedroom from other areas. The common room, on the other hand, must communicate with all the rooms of the cottage, because this is a gathering place for all family and friends. The same goes for houses made of aerated concrete blocks. These materials retain heat very well, so the second floor will not be inferior to the first in comfort. Guest and children's rooms on the second floor will allow the rest of the household to spend time in the living room without any problems, without disturbing the sleeping upstairs.
Due to the high weight of the structure, the internal structure of a brick house must meet safety rules. Depending on the area of the second floor, an additional load-bearing wall in the center may be required. Pay attention to this point when planning the placement of the hall and bedrooms.
Modern construction technologies open up the widest possibilities for the design of houses - from classic to modern. Chalet houses have become very popular in recent years. This minimalist style is originally from Switzerland, which implies simplicity and the use of natural materials. The facades of the houses are facing east, the wide gable roof extends beyond the frame. Often, the first floor is built of stone or brick, and the second floor, attic or terrace is made of logs and beams. The chalet style is also used in the interior, combining the beauty of natural wood with artificial stone or decorative brick trim.
When planning the interior, take into account the peculiarities of the appearance of the facade so that the housing turns out to be harmonious.… Beautiful wooden walls outside and a loft style inside will not always complement each other favorably, as well as finishing with PVC panels with a log cabin.
Classic designs never go out of style: decorative columns and balustrades will decorate a stone or brick house from the outside, while wallpapers and tiles of calm, light colors will decorate the inside. A short-cropped lawn and a well-kept garden with a fountain complete the look of a family home. You can turn your cottage into a small fairytale castle by opting for patterned wrought-iron elements in the decor, combining them with mosaics and bas-reliefs.
The simplicity and geometricity of the modern style will appeal to fans of minimalism. Straight lines, minimal colors and interior lighting will make your home look futuristic and trendy. Scandinavian houses are also characterized by simple and straightforward forms. Basic colors are white, blue and gray. An ascetic setting and a lot of free space for those who do not like unnecessary fuss.