If you have chosen frame technology during the planning of building a house, then it is worth considering some factors that many people mistakenly neglect. So, in a frame house at the stage of erecting walls (both load-bearing and interior), jibs must be installed.
What are jibs and what are they for?
Jibs are called special props, which are an integral part of the frame and perform a strengthening function. These are racks located at an angle of 45 to 60 degrees. Their installation is necessary to guarantee the strength, stability of the load-bearing walls and other vertical elements in the house. Thus, the strength of the entire frame increases, and some of the lateral loads are transferred to this support.
One frame (without jibs) is able to hold the weight of the second floor and the roof. But he will not be able to withstand the weight of horizontal objects. In this case, the joint areas connected with nails will be the weak point. Practice shows that soon after the start of the exploitation of the house, the fasteners loosen, which is why the walls can shift or even slide down or to the side.
Among would-be builders, there is an opinion that these elements do not play a significant role in relation to the strength of the building. They also think they can be replaced with spacers. But this is a big mistake. Spacers can only reduce the effect of the spring, preventing the structure from "walking". But they are also able to accelerate destruction by falling to one side.
This often happens with frequent and strong gusts of wind in open areas.
At the same time, the jibs reliably protect the base from displacement, giving it density and stability, not allowing it to move even by a millimeter. Solid wood props have proven themselves well. But the use of flexible metal plates or tapes is also allowed if the structure is small and medium-sized. We will talk more about the types of jibs later.
Regardless of the type of construction, they all perform a number of important tasks:
- prevent deformation of the frame building;
- add quality to the home;
- extend the service life of the foundations and increase the period of operation of the premises;
- prevent the heat insulator from moving through the partitions;
- are the stabilizer of the structure, preventing it from falling or collapsing;
- evenly distribute the load on all parts of the house during hurricane winds, blizzards.
These fastening elements are necessary and indispensable in the construction of a frame house. And their correct application and correct installation will allow you to build a strong and reliable structure that will last for several decades.
Overview of types of jibs
As mentioned above, there are two main types of supports: wood and metal. According to the technology of building frame houses, both options are permissible. The main thing is to take into account their features in accordance with the type and layout of the building.
Wooden jibs look like a regular board. For their manufacture, they take exceptionally high-quality and durable raw materials, and then make a bar from it with a section of 25 or 50 mm by 100 mm. The main advantage of such structures is their low weight, which does not allow for the overall weight of the house. This fact makes wooden jibs the most popular in comparison with metal ones.
The tree copes well with the compression-expansion load, so specimens based on it can be installed at a great distance from each other.
It should be noted right away that in Russia this type of props is used very rarely, in exceptional cases, which cannot be said about the United States. This technology is traditional and actively used there.
At first glance, it seems that iron jibs are much stronger and more reliable than wooden ones. But in fact, it turns out that their large weight only makes the frame of the house heavier, reducing all strength to a minimum, because the iron supports must hold not only the base, but also themselves. This type of jib copes with this task satisfactorily, while making the whole structure heavier.
In addition, the metal does not tolerate the compressive load poorly, which means that it is necessary to additionally mount them in a cruciform manner, using two jibs instead of one, and this is double the cost of building materials and a lot of time.
Another disadvantage of iron is a high likelihood of corrosion. (if the waterproofing is poorly performed or lacking), which automatically shortens the life of the props.
Jib installation technology
Since there are two types of supports, differing from each other in material and properties, several installation methods have been developed for each of them.
Wooden jibs are usually angular, that is, they are erected at an angle of 45-60 degrees. This is the main principle of its connection with the rest of the frame and the strengthening of individual elements according to the principle of a connecting link. But even here there are several mounting options.
K-shaped (or zigzag). The jibs are cut into shorter lengths and shaped like the letter "K". If the structure is of great height or length, then there will be several such connecting nodes, and then the reinforcement will already look like a zigzag in each separate sector of the house
This method is considered the strongest and most indestructible.
Through (or solid). One long board is placed diagonally from the first sector to the third or fourth. To do this, grooves are pre-cut on the vertical racks so that the jib partially penetrates inside
Transverse. In each sector, a separate diagonal support is installed between the vertical posts. Such a structure is easier to make, but it is not very durable
As for metal supports, due to low demand, they are not so easy to find in hardware stores, because if wooden jibs can be made independently from boards, then iron ones are made by welding companies. Nevertheless, you can find special corners for the installation method called "kerchief", as well as other elements for other construction options.
Diagonally. The technology is similar to that used when working with wooden props
Crosswise. Iron strips are arranged in pairs, with an intersection. This ensures the necessary stability of the future building
Parallel. The scheme of actions involves the use of many related parts for fastening and fixing the structure
Regardless of the materials and construction methods, when working with jibs, it is important to follow a number of rules:
- between the posts and the frame strapping, the angle must be 90 degrees;
- the thickness of the jibs should not exceed ¼ of the thickness of the uprights;
- the cut must match the stand;
- the outside of the building can only be strengthened temporarily; for permanent use, it must be fixed from the inside;
- at the top, the jib should fit into the joint of the upper strapping, and at the bottom - into the joint of the lower one, an acute angle of the support and a similar hole for it are cut out at an angle of 90 degrees;
- for each wall, it is necessary to put two jibs so that the first is directed in one direction, and the second in the opposite;
- if the angle of the supports is more than 60 degrees, then you need to increase the number of jibs;
- if the wall has not yet been erected, but there is a desire to put the jibs in advance, then you can do this without completely tightening the bolts, which will allow, after final installation, to correct their location, if necessary;
- if a crossbar is used, then it must be on the other side of the support;
- when installing jibs, the use of self-tapping screws is prohibited;
- sometimes it is allowed to mount the support from the outside, but it is worth remembering that in this case cold bridges may appear;
- during the application of the mineral heat insulator, it is recommended to slightly trim it to the thickness of the jib, otherwise air bags will form, which will negatively affect the structure;
- if it is not possible to put two jibs in different directions, then before waterproofing, the walls should be sheathed with OSB-3 sheets 12 mm thick;
- it is better to abandon the use of hollow (or empty) supports - their use is permissible only for small houses with flexible diagonal braces;
- it is necessary to put supports in the frame building, starting from the floor in the center of the wall and leading to the ceiling, while it is important that they are in close contact with the upper floors and the vertical frame;
- when crossing the jibs, they must fit tightly into the recesses intended for them on the vertical posts - their dimensions must necessarily coincide up to 1 mm;
- it is necessary to carry out a correct and accurate calculation of the dimensions of the boards, grooves, fasteners.
Above are recommendations for the most part regarding the installation of wooden jibs. But if we talk about metal supports, then grooves and grooves are cut in them in the same way.
For this event, special requirements of SNiP have even been drawn up, where all cross-sectional sizes can be found.
Among professional builders of frame houses, there is a strong opinion that the jib should prevent displacement or deformation of the strapping from above relative to the strapping from the bottom along its trajectory, that is, the pressure going to the strapping from above should transfer to the strapping from the bottom by means of the jib. In this case, the vertical struts can only carry an additional load, adding rigidity and durability to the struts. Here, inexperienced people, faced with such a task for the first time, often make a number of mistakes.
To warn everyone else against this, we will tell you what cannot be done during the installation of jibs:
- inserting the ends of the support into the racks of the base - you need to nail the support to the harness or rack, and not rest against them;
- use excessively thick boards as jibs;
- stick a support into the crossbars of the walls;
- fasten the props with self-tapping screws;
- choose the wrong angle of inclination, put the jib cardinally vertically or horizontally;
- put supports in the amount of 1-2 pieces on a wall length of 6 meters or more, especially if they are located in the same direction;
- mount only one jib in a frame house with more than one storey, especially if the building is being erected in an open, windy place.
If you neglect the rules of construction, then you can provoke the collapse of the building. A poorly constructed structure will not be able to withstand the load. Jibs will not replace the spacers or the exterior cladding of the house.
For important nuances that need to be taken into account when erecting jibs in a frame house, see the video below.