If you decide to equip a country house, pay attention to the technology of construction from a bar. Such structures are durable and reliable and do not take much time to build. To create comfort inside the home, the walls must be insulated.
Advantages and disadvantages
You can insulate the walls of the house both outside and inside. Many people choose the first type, because they do not want to lose useful area. A thick layer of thermal insulation “eats up” a couple of square meters of your rooms. External insulation has its own nuances.
At all times, wood has been the main material for building houses. Contact with it is harmless to humans; during operation, no toxins or pathogens are released. If you value this quality, choose natural wall insulation.
So you will not only keep the comfort in the room, but also protect the wooden building, extending its service life.
The cost of a log house is lower than alternative options. You can also insulate such a structure without spending too much. You can handle many stages of work yourself. Choose the insulation material for your wallet, remembering to check the characteristics that are necessary for your region.
Wood in nature decomposes naturally. Under the influence of wind and precipitation, the walls of the house will sooner or later begin to decay. To prevent this from happening, various protective compounds are applied to the timber. When choosing a heater, you should think about the microclimate that it will create for the supporting structure.
Do not allow the layer to become damp. For this, vapor barrier and hydro-wind protection are additionally used.
The tree catches fire easily. Pay attention to the insulation material so as not to exacerbate the fire hazard. Correctly selected insulation will reduce the likelihood of fire and minimize losses if misfortune does happen.
Profiled log houses are beautiful in themselves. Smooth rows of wooden elements look authentic and atmospheric. Very often, such houses are not additionally sheathed in order to preserve the texture and pattern of the wood. Insulating a house from a bar outside will hide this beauty, and additional efforts will be required for decoration. On the other hand, you do not have to worry about the appearance during the construction phase, because the insulation layer will hide all imperfections under the cladding later.
Low thermal conductivity
Wood itself is a warm material. But the thickness of the walls made of laminated veneer lumber is unable to keep the temperature in the room. Without additional insulation, such buildings cannot be residential according to building codes. In winter, the temperature inside will be the same as outside. According to the rules of heating engineering, the insulation of a house from the outside is more effective than from the inside.
As you can see it is best to insulate a house from a bar outside. This way you will not lose useful floor space. In addition, this method is more effective than internal thermal insulation.
For older houses, the external insulation method will help and renew the look.
How can you insulate?
Different materials are used to insulate houses from a bar. They differ in cost, thermal conductivity characteristics, service life and water absorption parameters. Insufficient or improper insulation will not only make the house cold, but will also lead to the formation of condensation from the inside of the building, spoiling the cosmetic repairs. Each option has strengths and weaknesses.
Deservedly one of the most popular options. The high porosity gives the mineral wool excellent sound and heat insulation properties. It is resistant to combustion and has increased vapor permeability, that is, the walls of the house under a layer of insulation will breathe.
When choosing mineral wool, take care of protection from moisture from all sides. Usually a membrane is used for this. Once wet, this material may not dry completely and start the process of decay from the inside. Additionally, rock wool can be an attractive habitat for rodents and pests. We advise you to choose packaging in sheets rather than a roll if you plan to do the work yourself. Unfolding and holding the twisted cotton wool can be difficult.
A kind of material is ecowool. It is produced on the basis of cellulose, not basalt, but this option has similar properties.
A simple insulation that allows you to inexpensively process the walls of the room. A very lightweight material that will not add weight or stress to the load-bearing walls. Chemically, the foam is inert, that is, it does not emit any harmful substances into the environment. The only serious disadvantage is its high flammability. It is just when the foam is burned that it gives off a very corrosive and toxic smoke. When choosing, pay attention to the digital marking in order to choose the right thickness. The higher the number, the denser the sheet will be. Accordingly, the thinner you can make the layer of insulation.
Tip: the joints between the sheets are best sealed with foil tape. This will prevent heat leakage.
Improved styrofoam option. With similar properties, such a material absorbs less moisture, retains heat better and withstands temperature drops from -50 to +75 degrees. Thanks to the extrusion technology, the density and insulating qualities of expanded polystyrene foam are very high, and the thickness of the layer of such insulation will be approximately two times less than when using, for example, mineral wool.
This material is made from expanded polystyrene. Factory production allows you to achieve the formation of air cells evenly located over the entire surface of the sheet, which gives the penoplex excellent insulating properties. The slabs have profiled sides, which greatly simplifies installation.
Very low hygroscopicity is a definite plus. Wall insulation with foam removes the need to additionally use vapor barrier membranes.
Chips and sawdust are added to the cement mixture to increase the density. Then the floors between floors and cavities in the walls are poured with sawdust concrete. The insulation process is long and laborious, but the result is very good in terms of insulating properties. In fact, this is a modern analogue of the ancient technology, when clay was mixed with straw and the walls of huts were coated with this.
Sprayed polyurethane foam
From a pressure cylinder, dense foam is applied directly to the wall in a dense layer. This method allows you to omit the stage of additional vapor and waterproofing, because the material is resistant to moisture and allows air to pass through.
It is difficult to insulate a house on your own in this way, because you need special equipment and skills to work with it. The high cost is also distinguished from the minuses.
It is a lightweight foil-based material. It is flexible, which allows you to adjust the curvature of the walls. Such insulation is mounted with the reflective side inward so that the heat does not leave the room. However, over time, the web can sag and lose efficiency.
From the point of view of economy, insulating the walls of the house is more profitable than spending resources on heating. In addition, coziness and comfort of living is a priority task in the matter of arranging a country house. When selecting a specific option, the thermal conductivity of the material, the parameters of compression resistance and frost resistance are taken into account. Some types are suitable for southern latitudes, and others for cold areas. Study the terrain carefully before making a purchase.
To calculate the optimal thickness of thermal insulation, use the following formula: thermal resistance in the region is equal to the thickness of the insulation divided by the coefficient of thermal conductivity. You will find the first parameter in the regulation SNIP 23-01-99 "Construction climatology", and the third - in the characteristics of the material on the package. Thus, you can calculate the thickness by multiplying these numbers. It is possible to exceed the recommended thickness, but most often this does not lead to a significant increase in thermal insulation characteristics. The indicator should not be underestimated, otherwise the insulation will be insufficient.
It will be useful to take into account the thermal conductivity of all materials used in the construction. If the interior decoration has good thermal insulation performance, the exterior work may be reduced.
Also, when choosing a material, pay attention to biological resistance. This parameter determines the tendency to the appearance of fungi and mold, as well as the attractiveness to rodents and parasites.
Before proceeding directly with the installation of the insulation, you need to prepare the tools and the surface.
Lumber walls must be shrunk and dry completely before you can begin work. If you hurry, the layer will turn out to be uneven, the heat will not remain as it should. Houses made of dry laminated veneer lumber go through this stage much faster than buildings made of wood of natural moisture.
Wood is a natural material, and therefore can become an attractive environment for various insects and parasites. Treat the surface thoroughly with antiseptics and other pest-resistant compounds to protect your home.
Seal and fix all gaps and imperfections, even minor ones. It may seem that a layer of insulation and cladding will smooth out all the flaws, but no one will like living in a house with a draft. For this, the gaps are sealed with jute or flax fiber. Natural moss is sometimes used, but today this approach is considered outdated.
Calculate the material with a small margin so that you do not have to stop the installation if, for some reason, there is not enough insulation
In the case of mineral wool or ecowool, such a delay can lead to dampness of the material - and you will have to dry the walls.
In addition to thermal insulation, take care of wind protection. A thin layer of membrane will prevent evaporation and keep moisture out of the walls.
Measurements have shown that the greatest heat loss occurs in the corners, so treat them carefully and thoroughly.
Consult in advance with experts to calculate the optimal thickness of the insulation. For the calculation, you will need data on the minimum temperature in winter and on the average for the year. You also need to consider the heating methods and the location of the batteries or stoves inside.
To properly insulate the walls of a wooden house with your own hands, follow a certain sequence of actions. Below is a step-by-step instruction for work. In principle, the installation of any of the types of insulation does not differ from the other, so you can rely on this general scheme, regardless of the choice of raw materials.
Most often, a bar with a section of 150x150 cm is used for the construction of houses. It is lightweight and durable, but the thermal insulation characteristics of such thin walls are very low. Wood is a very hygroscopic material. When installing the insulation, it is necessary to leave a gap so that the moisture evaporates and does not harm the geometry of the walls.
Therefore, the best way to insulate a house from a bar is considered to be the device of an external ventilated facade. This is a multi-layer construction that will allow the timber to breathe and at the same time preserve the comfort inside.
Installation of spacers
To begin with, install strips 2-2.5 centimeters thick for ventilation between the wall and the insulation layer. They are mounted along the entire perimeter with a step of 60–70 cm using stainless steel screws. Planks or bars are used as planks.
Then the walls are covered with a vapor barrier film. On one side, it has a rough texture. It is there that excess moisture settles and dissipates, then evaporates in the ventilation gap. The film is fixed with a construction stapler with the smooth side out. It is placed with an overlap to seal the entire surface tightly. Enough 10-15 centimeters of overlap.
The lathing parameters are dictated by the selected material. This is a structure into which insulation sheets will be inserted. That is, the step between the planks must correspond to the width of the sheet, and the height of the bar must match the thickness of a unit of insulation. In order not to get into a mess, the distance between the frame elements can be made a couple of centimeters narrower. So you will definitely exclude the possibility of a gap between the strip and the thermal insulation. When installing, do not forget to take into account door and window openings. They are also bypassed with perimeter planks. Calculate the number of planks and the distance between them so that the outermost ones in a row are always at the corners.
The slats are installed vertically, if the building is multi-storey, it is better to additionally lay horizontal slats.
Now the insulation material itself is inserted into the finished crate. Fix it to the wall in a suitable way. For example, mineral wool and polystyrene are mounted on plastic dowels. It is better to cut and adjust the size of the insulation sheets not in advance, but after the work. In this way, you will avoid errors in calculations if the distance between the crossbeams of the frame is not ideally the same everywhere.
The principle of work is the same as when installing a vapor barrier. The windproof membrane is a special material with small pores. These pores will release steam to the outside if it does get inside the structure, but will not let the wind through.
The membrane also perfectly protects from excess moisture from the outside. This will keep the insulation layer dry.
Now it remains to veneer the facade with the material you like. This can be siding, brickwork, block house, or any other material of your choice. The cladding will additionally protect the structure from the effects of the external environment, as well as give the building an attractive appearance. Mark the sheathing so that it will be attached to the already existing battens.
For information on how to insulate a house from a bar outside, see the next video.